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GCSE 2. Tectonic haz

Risk The potential danger or damage created by an event
Short term A hazard lasting for a short period (less than a day)
Medium term A hazard that lasts for a few weeks
Long term A hazard that lasts for over a month
Tectonic Associated with the movement of the tectonic plates in the Earth's crust
Natural hazard A danger or threat to HUMAN LIFE caused by natural processes such as climatic change or tectonic activity
Prediction Volcanoes can me monitored to warn of an eruption
Protection and preparation Can be as effective as prediction in reducing impact
Plate Also called a tectonic plate. The Earth's crust is broken into huge slabs of rock
Oceanic crust Crust below the oceans. Mainly basalt, it is younger, heavy and dense
Continental crust Less dense crust forming continenets (25-90km thick) Floats on the mantle
Core The centre of the earth
Mantle THe layer of semi-molten rock between the Earth's crust and core
Magma The molten rock below the Earth's surface
Convection currents The slow circular movements of molten rock in the mantle caused by the heat rising from the Earth's crust
Crust The solid layer of rock around the outside of the earth
Plate margins/boundaries Where two plates meet
Island arcs A chain of volcanic islands formed along a Subduction zone
Ring of fire A line of volcanoes following the destructive plate boundaries around the side of the Pacific Ocean
Mid oceanic ridge A long undersea mountain chain formed on a constructive plate boundary (eg. Iceland is on the Mid Atlantic Ridge)
Ocean trench A long deep valley in the ocean floor. Ocean trenches are formed at destructive plate boundaries.
Destructive margin An oceanic and continental plate are moving towards each other. The oceanic plate will sink
Subduction zone Area where an oceanic plate is sinking, melting and being destroyed at a destructive plate boundary
Fold mountains Mountains formed by the bending and buckling of rocks, where two tectonic plates are colliding
Sedimentary rocks Rock formed from particles of sediment which have been compressed and cemented together
Constructive margin Tectonic plate boundary where new oceanic crust forms
Collision margin The place where two continental tectonic plates collide. The plates are not dense enough to sink into the mantle and therefore both crumble to form fold mountains
Conservative margin Two plates are sliding past each other
Pyroclastic clouds A cloud of extremely hot gas, ash, lava fragments and rock which is ejected during a volcanic eruption and runs down the side of a volcano
Volcanic bombs A lump of lava which is thrown high into the air when a volcano erupts
Active volcano A volcano which has erupted recently and is expected to erupt again in the future
Long term effects Impacts which develop later, such as fall in global temperatures
Lahar Mudflow or debris flow originating on a volcano
Albedo effect Refelection of the sun's rays by particles in the atmosphere - leads to cooler temperatures
Short term effects he initial impact of the volcano
Lava The molten rock which is erupted from a volcano
Acid lava Thick and sticky lava thrown out by some volcanoes, mainly along destructive plate boundaries
Basic lava Thin and runny lava thrown out by some volacnoes, mainly along constructive plate boundaries
Shield Volcano Volcanoes which are wide and low with gently sloping sides due to basic lava
Tsunami A huge wave triggered by an earthquake
Aftershock A small earthquake following a major earthquake
Secondary effects Long term impacts such as businesses closing
Richter scale Size of earthquakes is measured on a 9 point scale; level 2 is 10 times the size of level one
Primary effects The immediate impact of the earthquake
Epicentre The place on the Earth's surface which is directly above the focus of an earthquake
Focus/hypocentre THe point below ground where an earthquake begins
Seismometer These machines detect vibrations beneath the Earth's surface. Readings are passed to a seismograph
Created by: Rayrayy