Busy. Please wait.

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

Username is available taken
show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove Ads
Don't know
remaining cards
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Resp. Med Cards

Meds By Inhalation Therapeutic effects enhanced, delivery of drug directly to site of action; min systemic S/E
Metered Dose Inhaler Small hand-held, pressurized; measured does w/each puff; w/opt. use only 10% reaches lungs
Spacers Increase delivery to lungs
Dry Powders 20% get to lungs
Glucocorticoids--Inhalation, oral or IV Most effective anti-asthma drug; suppresses inflammation, decreases edema of airway secondary to decreasing vascular permeability, decrease mucus production
Uses and S/E of glucocorticoids Prophylactic use, NOT PRN. S/E: , Adrenal suppression, bone loss, decreased healing, hyperglycemia, oropharyngeal candidiasis & dysphonia--gargle to prevent; with prolonged use, must increase PO & IV doses in time of stress
Nasonex Nasocort intranasal glucocorticoids; S/E:drying of nasal mucosa, burning/itching, sore throat, epistaxis--not as effective w/stuffy nose **improvement 2-8 days; max benefit 4-6 wks
Vancenase Pulmicort Flovent Flonase anti-asthma glucocorticoids; inhale, IV or PO, decre inflamm, decre edema of airway, decre vascular permeability, decre mucus production--prophylactic, not PRN *S/E: decre growth rate of children for one yr
Zyflo Effects not immediate; leukotriene modifier--blocks leukotriene synthesis; used in >12 yo; hepatotoxic, monitor ALT, competes w/theophylline, coumadin (incr drug levels)
Leukotrienes Compounds promote bronchoconstriction, inflammation, mucos production and edema
Singulair Leukotriene receptor modifier; used prophylactically & maintenance, prevention of exercise induced bronchospasm; Relief of allergic rhinitis NOT immed; NOT hepatotoxic, does not incr drug levels
Nasalcrom--intranasal Intal--inhalation Effective for seasonal allergy attacks; used for exercise induced asthma--give 15 min prior to exercise; decrea bronch inflamm; NOT bronchodilator; use prophylactic, NOT PRN; no systemic effects; may be used instead of steriods
Theophylline avoid caffeine NOT COMMONLY USED--causes bronchodilation, narrow therap range; given PO, does not work inhaled--Use w/chronic, stable asthma to decrea freq & sev of attacks; wide var in met rates, dose based on indiv; thera level 5-15, levels 20-25 cause N/V; vfib,seiz
Bronchodilators Beta 2 Adrenergic Agonist Active Beta 2 receptors in smooth muscle of lungs cause bronchodilation, suppreses histamine release in lungs & increa ciliary motility; Avail PO or inhalation--all PO are long-acting
Albuterol short-acting; provides symp relief, does not address underlying prob--most also need steriod; most eff relieving acute bronchospasm; Inhale-begin immed; peak 30-60 min, persist 3-5 hr; S/E:increa HR, angina, tremors
Xopenex short-acting bronchodilator; used in addit to sterioids; provides relief, doesn't fix prob; Inhaled-immed action; peak 30-60 min, 15 in prior exercise; S/E: increa HR (short-term), angina, tremors
Serevent Long-acting bronchodilator; PO or inhale q12h, fixed schedule, not 1st choice for attack, should be used w/steroid; onset 10-30 min
Advair Combo (Flosnase/Flovent & Serevent); onset 10-30 min, inhale q12h, use w/steroids; S/E of steriods: increa HR, tremor
1st Gen antihistamine Relieves rhinorrhea, nasal itch, not congestion--take prophylactic on reg basis. S/E: sedation, dry mouth, urinary hesitancy, constipation
Benadryl Chlor-Trimeton 1st gen antihistamines, relieve rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, but NOT congestion. Most effective taken prophylactic, on reg basis. S/E: sedation, dry mouth, urinary hesitancy, consipation
Zyrtec Allegra Claritin Clarinex 2nd gen antihistamines; relieve rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, NOT congestion; take prophylactic on reg basis. S/E: Few, NO sedation
Decongestants decrea nasal congest by vasocontricting, shrinks swollen membrances. Uses: allergic rhinitis to relieve stuffiness, decrea congestion of sinusitis & colds. S/E: rebound congest, increa dose needed for sympt relief; limit 3-5 days; may need steriod
Dristan decongestant, S/E: CNS excitation, restless anxiety, systemic vasoconstriction; watch cardiac pts
Neosynephrine decongestant, S/E: CNS excitation, restless anxiety, systemic vasoconstriction; watch cardiac pts
Sudafed decongestant, S/E: CNS excitation, restless anxiety, systemic vasoconstriction; watch cardiac pts**Can be converted to meth--buy 3/6 g at a time, 9g/mo
Anticholinergic Blocks muscarinic receptors in bronchi causing dilation, used for COPD, off label use for asthma, inhalation only
Atrovent Anticholinergic; Onset 30 sec, max 3 min, lasts 6h. S/E: dry mouth, irritation of pharynx, avoid is PB allergy; contains soya lechthin, 10% anaphylaxis
Combivent duoNeb Combo of Atrovent & albuterol
Spiriva anticholinergic; long-acting, onset 30 min, peak 3hrs, last 24h; given once daily. S/E: dry mouth; DPI; additive benefits w/beta 2; 2 diff ways to dilate
Codeine antitussive for couging; decrease freq & intensity of cough; low dose; 1/10 dose use for pain; potential for abuse
Dextromethophan antitussive for coughing; non-opioid; taken at high doses cause euphoria & can be abused
Mucinex Expectorant & mucolytic, Expectorant: stimulates flow of respiratory secretions, Mucolytic: breaks up mucus
Mucomyst Expectorant & Mucolytic; stimulates flow of resp secretions & breaks up mucus; Given by inhalation; watch for bronchospasm, contains sulfur
Ways to prevent resistance to antibiotics 1)Vaccinate; prevent infections, 2)D/C invasive lines, 3)Target the pathogen, 4)consult infectious disease MD,5)Antimicrobial control,6)tx bacteria, not colonization; bacteria doesn't=infection
#1 adverse effect of PCNs Allergic reaction; Allergic to one, allergic to all
PCN MOA:binding proteins are receptor sites for drugs; only available during growth & div of bacteria
Gram (+) bacteria PCN easily penetrate thick cell wall & reach PCN binding proteins on cytoplasmic membrane
Gram (-) Most PCN cannot penetrate outer membrane
Penicillin G 1st PCN available, MOA: inhibit bacterial wall synthesis or activate enzymes to disrupt cell wall; Active against most gram (+), resistant most (-); give IM or IV--AVOID intraarterial...produces severe reactions (necrosis, gangrene)
Piperacillin inhibits baterial cell wall synthesis or activate enzymes to disrupt cell wall; broad spectrum, given IV; decrease dosing for impaired renal function
Zosyn inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis or activate enzymes to disrupt cell wall disruption; contains TAZOBACTAM (beta-lactamase inhibitor)prevents bacteria's beta lactamase enzyme from breaking down antibiotic in the piperacillan; given IV
Beta lactamases Enzymes that break down beta-lactam ring; can be produced by both gram (+) & (-); PCN has beta lactam ring in its chem structure. By breaking down beta ring,PCN becomes ineffective against bacteria
Augmentin (Amoxicillan/clavulanate} Clavulante is beta lactase inhibitor that protects antibiotic(amoxicillian) from bacteria; May be given PO; S/E: rash, diarrhea (very common)
Cephalosporin Method of Action, Resistance MOA: binds to PCN binding proteins; has beta lactam ring, bactericidal; most effective vs bacteria undergoing cell div & growth. Resistance: based on bacteria's ability to break down beta lactam ring
Cephalosporin Generations As progress through generations, incr activity vs gram (-) bact & anaerobes, incr resistance to beta lactamase, inc ability to reach CSF. 1st gen-used for gram (+), destroyed by beta lactamase, 2nd gen less sensitive to beta lactamase, don't reach CSF.
Cephalosporin Pharmaco, Adv. Effects Pharm:PO absorption from GI tract; usually given IV/IM, most eliminated by kidney, may need to decr dose if renal pt. S/E: hypersensitivity reactions, rash for sev days; risk of bleeding(interfers w/Vit K metab),thrombopheblitis.
Cephalosporin Drug Interactions meds that promote bleeding; interacts w/Probenecid (delays excretion)
Cephalosporin 1st gen, not typical for active infections; used for surgical pts; used for gram(+); destroyed by beta lactamase enzymes; most effective vs bacteria under cell division; DOES NOT REACH CSF
Cefzil Ceftin 2nd gen; PO, not for active inf, surgical pts; less sensitive to beta lactamase; DOES NOT REACH CSF
Rocephine 3rd Gen; given IV/IM, do NOT give w/Ca containing IVF/IVPB! Highly resistant to beta lactamase; incr ability to reach CSF; reserved for active infections "Big Guns"
Maxipime 4th gen,IM/IV; reserved for active infections "BIG GUNS", highly resistant to beta lactamase; active vs anaerobes & gram (-), incr ability to reach CSF
Vancomycin Reserved for serious inf; does not contain beta lactase ring. MOA: inhibits cell wall synth; does NOT interact w/PCN binding proteins; given IV except for GI inf (c.diff); excreted by kidneys; Use: c diff, MRSA, allergy to PCN
Vancomycin Adverse Effects nephrotoxic, ototoxic, ringing in ears/less hearing. Rapid infusion may cause "red man syndr": flushing, tachycardia, hypotension, rash, pruritis--slow infusion to avoid, chg inf site dilate; peaks & troughs to monitor serum levels
Azactam Contains beta lactam ring;MOA: binds to PCN binding proteins; not eff against anaerobes or gram (+) bacteria,only vs gram(-) aerobic bacteria, highly resistant to beta latamase; S/E:pain&thrombophelbitis@inj site
Azactam uses gram(-) aerobic bacteria; given IM/IV; eliminated via kidneys
Tetracyclines Broad spectrum, bacteriostatic;use of tetracycline decreased; MOA:suppress bacteria growth by inhibiting protein synthesis; Use: chlamydia, lyme's disease, H. pylori;topically or orally for acne
tetracycline adverse effects GI irritation; binds to salts, do NOT give w/Ca suppl, dairy, Fe, Mg containing antacids or laxatives--can discolor teeth yellow to brown; avoid <8yoa, photosensitivity. C diff common, yeast inf (mouth, vaginal); take with 8oz H2O; use straw if liq form
Sumycin Take on empty stomach; eliminated by kidneys, avoid w/renal failure
Vibramycin Can take w/food; eliminated by liver, OK to use w/renal failure
Biaxin Zithromax Broad spectrum antibiotics; very BIG molecules; usually bacteriostatic; may be used as alternative to PCN; active vs many gram (+) & some gram(-).MOA:inhibits protein synth (bind to ribosomes)
Uses of Biaxin & Zithromax Pertussis, whooping cough, diptheria, chlamydia, some pneumonia; food decreases absorption; eliminated by liver
Adverse effects of Biaxin & Zithromax GI upset, QT prolongation; can lead to TorSades & sudden cardiac death; avoid use w/antidysrhythmias & calcium channel blockers. Drug Interactions: increases level of theophylline & coumadin
Biaxin Macrolide; used for respiratory tract infect, H pylori
Zithromax Macrobide; used for resp tract infections, chlamydia; absorption increases w/food
Cleocin Active vs anaerobic bacteria (+)or(-); usually bacteriostatic; MOA:inhibits protein synth. Uses:severe group A streptoccal inf. S/E:pseudomembranous coilitus-c diff, profuse watery diarrhea, abd pain, fever, leukocytosis; stool (+) for mucus & blood
Zyvox Oxazolidinone; active vs multidrug resistant gram(+) bacteria, VRE, MRSA.MOA:inhibits protein synthesis.Uses:VRE, MRSA, not active vs gram(-) bacteria.S/E:mylosuppresion AKA decr WBC,RBC platelets
Gentamycin Aminoglycoside MOA:disrupts protein synth; bactericidal due to production of abnormal proteins. Uses:aerobic gram(-)bacilli;cannot kill anaerobes,need O2 to transport medication across membrane
Gentamycin Pharm & S/E Pharm:given IV ONLY; may give PO for bowel infection only; decr dose or incr interval for renal pts. S/E:ototoxic, nephrotoxic, monitor peaks & troughs
Cipro fluoroquinolone Absorption decreased w/Al,Mg,Ca,Fe & dairy products MOA:disrupts replication of cell division.Uses:resp,urinary,GI,bone,joints,skin,soft tissue infect.S/E:tendon rupture, usually achilles,watch for pain & tenderness; GI upset,candida of pharynx&vagina, CNS:dizzness, confusion-esp elderly; phototoxicity.
Levaquin fluoroquinolone MOA:disrupts replication of cell division.Uses:resp,urinary,GI,bone,joints,skin,soft tissue infect.S/E:tendon rupture, usually achilles,watch for pain & tenderness; GI upset,candida of pharynx&vagina, CNS:dizzness, confusion-esp elderly; phototoxicity.
Flagyl used for protozoal & anaerobic bact.MOA:must be taken up by cells, breaks down DNA.Uses:c diff, abd & vaginal surg, H pylori. S/E:nausea, HA, dry mouth,unpleasant metallic taste; darkening of urine; avoid ETOH,may need to decrease coumadin dose
Amphotericin (Ampho B) BIG DANGEROUS DRUG ; IV. Uses: fatal fungal infect.S/E:infusion reactions-fever, chills, nausea,HA; onset 1-3hr post infusion; premed w/benadryl, tylenol, c-steriods;phlebitis-chg perph insert site, give via CL
Amphotericin (Ampho B) side effects infusion reactions, phlebitis, bone marrow suppression, nephrotoxic
Sporonox, Diflucan, Vfend Azoles, lower toxicity than amphoB; can be give PO. Uses: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, candidiasis. S/E: cardio suppression & liver injury; use caution in heart & liver pts. If PO, N/V, diarrhea
Sporonox take w/food; do NOT take w/antacids
Cancidas (Caspofungin) Given IV;Uses: aspergillus or candida only. S/E: phlebitis Better tolerated than ampho B
Tuberculosis slow growing microbe; req prolong tx; drug toxicity & pt compliance is issue; promotes emergence of drug resistance. Min tx 6mos up to 2yrs if resistant; 4 drug combo used to treat TB to reduce chance of resistance
INH Bactericidal; must be taken min 6mos, prefer 9mos. S/E: liver damage; excreted by kidneys, incr risk of liver damage with age; peripheral neuropathy r/t decre level of vit B6-if take B6 w/INH decre s/s neuropathy
rifadin bactericidal; take on empty stomach for best absorption; eliminated by hepatic mech; hepatotoxic; red-orange discolor urine, sweat, tears, saliva
PZA bactericidal, hepatotoxic, incr uric acid (inhibits excretion)
Ethambutol Bacteriostatic; S/E: optic neuritis (blurred vision/constriction of visual field, chgs to color discrimination); inhibits uric acid excretion
Zovirax MOA: only active vs herpes virus family; decreases synthesis of viral DNA. Uses: chicken pox, herpes, shingles. S/E: IV-phlebitis, nephrotoxic, PO-N/V/D/HA, not nephrotoxic
Carboplatin chemo agent used for small cell lung CA. S/E: bone marrow suppression; N/V occur, nephrotoxic, watch for hearing loss
Taxol Chemo agent used for non-small cell lung CA. S/E: watch for severe hypersensitivity infusion reactions (hypotension, dyspnea, angioedema, urticaria-hives)pre-medicate w/corticosteroids, benadryl; bone marrow supp; alopecia, bradycardia
Created by: divelmama