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Chp. 16 Bio

Simple patterns of inheritance

Genes Discrete particles, DNA
Gregor Mendel , the father of genetics, was an Austrian monk who discovered the fundamental principles of genetics by breeding garden peas. Quantitative approach.
True Breeding They differ from one another by only a single trait, such as flower color or height, and that trait remains the same from one generation to the next
self-fertilize so the parentage of the offspring is always known
hybrid When two individuals of different varieties are cross-fertilized, or crossed, the offspring is called a hybrid
P generation Parental generation
F1 generation offspring of P generation
F2 generation offspring of F1 generation
monohybrid cross cross between individuals that different in only one trait.
Alleles Alternative forms of genes. Each indiv. has two alleles. one from each parent.
homologous chromosomes alleles that control a particular trait.
sperm or egg only contains one allele due to meiosis. principle of segregation.
Dominant Allele Allele that is expressed.
Recessive Allele Allele that is not seen but still is present.
homozygous Individual with two identical alleles
Heterozygous indiv. with two different alleles.
Phenotype the genes that are expressed. what you see when you look at them. Purple
Genotype all the genes they have. PpPp
Punnett square easy way to figure out the possible combinations of an offspring.
Dihybrid corss the parents are different in two characteristics.
principle of independent assortment that each pair of alleles segregates independently of the others during meiosis
Incomplete dominance The heterozygote has a phenotype that is intermediate between the two parents. For example, a cross between white and red flowered snapdragons produces pink offspring
Codominance when both dominant alleles are expressed at the same time. Blood types.
A and B blood type Codominant
O blood type recessive
Pleiotropy One pair of alleles may affect more than one characteristic. *a mutation can happen in a single cell but can affect multiple organs.
Epistasis one gene may inhibit another. * albinism. masking other genes.
Polygenic inheritance Many alleles may be involved in regulating a single characteristic. For example, there is continuous variation in skin color and height in humans.
Environmental factors may influence the expression of characteristics. mall nutrition can prevent full height. *pku
Sex-influenced traits some traits show a gender and dosage effect. male baldness pattern doesnt affect women
Heterozygote advantage some genes help you become immune to diseases. while others dont.
pedigree analysis unknown genes primary means of looking at inheritance patterns.
Carriers unaffected indiv. who still carry a gene.
Recessive genetic disorders (more common) albinism, galactosemia, sickle-cell anemia
Dominant disorders (less common) Alzheimers disease, huntington, hypercholesterolmia
Carries testing Adults can be tested for a variety of genetic disorders. The genes for sickle cell, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs, and Huntington’s
predictive testing test whether to see your chances of developing a certain disease.
Amniocentesis is a technique used to detect genetic disorders in a fetus. A small sample of amniotic fluid containing cells from the fetus is removed from the uterus. *down syndrome.
Chorionic villus sampling can be done earlier in pregnancy than amniocentesis, and the results are available within hours. A sample of tissue from the placenta is removed
Newborn screening test for certain disorder in newborns have become routine. such as PKU
Created by: 1574238891