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Groundwater

Earth Science

QuestionAnswer
Moving water Rivers, streams, and springs
Standing water Ponds, lakes, and swamps
The water cycle the movement of water from the oceans and freshwater sources to the air and land and finally back to the oceans
Evaporation the process of water to gas phase
Condensation the process of gas to water.  Must be cooled for this to occur
Precipitation water returns to the Earth in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail
Groundwater Water that remains in the ground, Eventually flows into the ocean, ome of this returns to the earth through springs
Valley (alpine) glaciers long, narrow glaciers that move downhill between mountain valleys
Continental glaciers thick sheets of ice that covers millions of square km of the earth’s surface, moves slowly in all directions
Icebergs Some are as large as Rhode Island
Surface runoff the water that enters a river or stream after a heavy rain or spring thaw
Pore space the space between particles of soil.  More pore space means more water the ground can hold
Watershed a land area where surface runoff drains into a river or a system of rivers and streams
Lakes usually deep depressions in the earth’s crust filled with fresh water
Ponds shallow depressions with fresh water, plants usually throughout
Reservoirs the most frequently used source of fresh water
Uses of reservoirs Prevents flooding, drinking water, generates electricity, Irigation for farms
Groundwater present because the various forms of precipitation do not stop traveling when they hit the ground.  Instead it moves slowly downward through pores
Permeable layers material through which water can move quickly
Impermeable layers water cannot get through easily, allows water to accumulate
Zone of saturation the underground region in which all the pores are filled with water
Zone of aeration a drier region in which the pores are filled mostly with air
Water table the boundary between the zone of saturation and aeration, that marks the level below which the ground is saturated
Aquiclude Area of impermeable rock, small area in which water can collect, usually found under an aquifer
Aquifer the layer where the water begins to move sideways through a layer of rock that allows it to pass freely
Solvent a substance in which another substance dissolves
Solution contains two or more substances mixed on the molecular level, one thing must be dissolved
Soluble can be dissolved
Insoluble cannot be dissolved
Hard water contains large amounts of dissolved minerals, especially calcium and magnesium
Soft water The opposite of hard water
Point source pollution oil spills, leaking toxic waste, smokestack emissions; where the source is obvious
Non point source pollution where there is no single point of pollution.  Examples:  runoff carrying natural and human-made pollutants
Created by: elarocco
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