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DIT vitamins

QuestionAnswer
Thiamine B1
Retinol, retinal A
pantothenic Acid B5
pyridoxine B6
alpha tocopherol E
Folic Acid B9
Niacin B3
Riboflavin B2
Ascorbic Acid C
cobalamin B12
Most common vitamin deficiency in the US folic acid
what is the functionally active form of B1? thiamine pyrophosphate
pyruvate -->acetyl coA1 alphaKG --->succinyl CoA (TCA) Ribose 5P --->glyceraldehyde 3P (HMP) thiamine pyrophosphate plays a role
pyruvate-->acetyl CoA pyruvate dehydrogenase + B1
alphaKG --->succinyl CoA alphaKG dehydrogenase + B1
ribose 5P --->glyceraldehyde transketolase + b1
how is thiamine deficiency diagnosed increase in erythrocyte transketolase activity upon add of thiamine
B1 deficiency syndromes Beriberi Wernicke-Korsackoff
nonspecific peripheral neuropathy with myelin degeneration. toe/wrist/foot drop muscle weakness, hyporeflexia, areflexia dry beri beri
peripheral vasodilation causes high output cardiac failure causes peripheral edema; cardiomegaly wet beri beri
ocular disturbances, nystagmus, gait ataxia, confusion, apathy, disorientation, wernicke-korsakoff sndrome
2 biologically active forms of B2 FMN and FAD
role of FMN and FAD co-factors for oxidation-reduction reactions
cheilosis/angular stomatitis, dermatitis, glossitis riboflavin, iron, niacin, folate, and B12 deficiency
Biologically active forms of B3 NAD, NADP
role of NAD and NADP co-factors for oxidation-reduction reactions
what amino acid is required for the generation of niacin? tryptophan
pellagra niacin deficiency
dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia pellagra
what might pellagra be seen in a population that eats primarily corn? corn lacks tryptophan
How does niacin help treat ytpe IIB hyperlipoproteinemia inhibits lipolysis in adipose tissue = less circulating fFAs = less FAs to live = less VLDL = less LDL
Main side effect of high does niacin tx of dyslipedemia? peripheral vasodilation (flushing). give asa to lessen.
Role of patothenic acid in metabolism it's a component of CoA which functions in the transfer of acyl groups
biologically active from of B6? pyridoxal phosphate
metabolic function of pyridoxal phosphate? coenzyme for numerous enzymes including thos of amino acid metabolism (transaminations and deaminations)
what drug can lead to a deficiency in B6 and B3? INH
convulsion, hyperirritability and peripheral neuropathy clinical findings of B6 deficiency
In what metabolic reactions is folic acid involved purine (A,G) and thymine (T) synthesis
What is the biologically active form of folic acid? Tetrahydrofolate
What is the intracellular storage form of folic acid? N methyl folate
NTDs, growth failure, megaloblastic anemia folic acid deficiency
causes megaloblastic anemia folate and B12 deficiency
What is found in the center of the corrin ring of cobalamin? cobalt
in what metabolic reactions is vitamin B12 involved? homocysteine and methyl THF ---> methionine and THF; methylmalonyl coA --> succinyl Coa
what breaks down the R-B12 complex in the duodenum? pancreatic proteases
what specific organs are involved in the absorption of B12? salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, distal ileum
Schilling test determines cause of B12 deficiency
megaloblastic anema, CNS sx (sensory), atrophy of stomach fundic glands, goblet cells in gastric epithelium, homocystinuria and MMA in urine pernicious anemia
b12 deficiency pernicious anemia
b12 neuropathy aka subacute combined degeneration
what's the usual cause of B12 malabsorption a/i destxn of gastric cells responsible for the synthesis of IF
Where is B12 absorbed in the GI tract distal ileum
2 malabsorption problems of the distal ileum that cause B12 deficiency crohn's disease and celiac sprue
What's the metabolic role of biotin apoenzyme in carboxylation reactions
avidin in egg whites can cause a biotin deficiency by preventing absorption of biotin
Main metabolic reaction that vit C is inolved in? hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues of collagen
sore,spongy gums, losse teeth, hemorrhage, swollen joints, impaired wound healing, anemia Scurvy
Vit C def Scurvy
Which of the fat soluble vitamins has a coenzyme function vit K
which fat soluble vitamin is synthesized in the skin with sun exposure vit D
what vitamins are known as antioxidants? A, C,E
retinol, retinal, beta carotene, retinoic acid vit a
how are retinol esters transported from the liver when needed? plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP)
Vision, Growth, male spermatogenesis, prevents fetal resorption, maintenance of epithelial cells vitamin A
Topical retinoic acid for acne and psoriasis
What can be taken orall for acne isoretinoin
Night blindness, Xerophthalmis, Keratomalacia, Bitot's spot vit A def
dry silver gray plaques on the bulbar conjunctiva bitot's spot
wrinking, clouding of cornea keratomalacia
HA, N/V, stupor, dry and itchy skin, enlarged liver, bone and joint pain, increase in intracranial pressure Vit A toxicity
excessive vit a in pregnant woman can cause which congenital malformations? hydrocephalus, NCC migration issues, HOX issues
don't give vit A supplements to: smokers ( inc r/o lung cancer) preggers (teratogenic)
How does vit D exert its actions it interacts directly with target cell DNA to selectively stimulate or repress gene expression
What is the precursor of vit D3 in the skin 7 dehydrocholesterol
ergocalciferol D2
cholecalciferol D3
1,25(OH)2D calcitriol
vit D def in adults osteomalacia
vit D def in kids rickets
what is the basic derangement in rickets/osteomalacia excess unmineralized bone matrix
bow-legged, lumbar lordosis, pigeous chest, rachitic rosary Rickets
overgrowth of cartilage or osteoid tissue at the costochondrial junction rachitic rosary
Vit D toxicity hypercalcemia
What causes vit D toxicity from excess macrophage generation? sarcoidosis
Principal role of vit K post translational modification of various clotting factors where it serves as a coenzyme in the carboxylation of certain glutamic acid residues present in these proteins
vit K is needed for protein C, S, prothrombin, and CF 2,7,9,10.
What characterizes vit K deficiency in adults and children hemorrhagic disease
pharmacologic agents that can cause vit K deficiency with long term use coumadin, anticonvulsants, abx
vit K tox hemolytic anemia and jaundice in an infacnt
primary function of vit E antioxidant - prevention of the nonenzymatic oxidation of cell components (esp RBCs) by molecular oxygen free radicals
what is a/w vit E deficiency spinocerebellar degeneration (ATAXIA) peripheral neuropathy and proximal muscle weakness
mutations in what gene results in the autosomal recessive hereditary vit E deficiency? alpha tocopherol transfer gene protein
Created by: kayjames