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diabetes terms

QuestionAnswer
continuous glucose monitoring system CGMS device worn 72hrs. monitors glucose. data analyzed for glucose patterns to tailor treatment
continuous subq insulin infusion / insulin pump device worn, delivers basal insulin. Pt can bolus before eating attempt mimic normal pancreatic fxn
diabetic mellitus group of metabolic diseases characterized by HYPERglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, action, or both
diabetic ketoacidosis DKA metabolic derangement in type1, results from insulin deficiency. Acidic ketone bodies formed, resulting in acidosis. Requires hospitalization. Caused by non-adherence, illness, or infection
fasting plasma glucose FPG blood glucose obtained after at least 8hr fast
gestational diabetes mellitus GDM any degree of glucose intolerance with its onset during pregnancy
glycated hemoglobin glycosylated hemoblobin Hgb A OR A1C long term measure of glucose control that is a result of glucose attaching to hemoglobin for the life of the red blood cell (120days)
Goal of diabetes therapy normal to near normal level of glycated hemoglobin, the same as in the non-diabetic pt
hyperglycemia elevated blood glucose level fasting >110 mg/dL 2hr postprandial >140mg/dL
hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic sysdrome HHNS metabolic disorder of DM2 resulting from insulin deficiency and demand for insulin; assoc. w/ polyuria & severe dehydration
postprandial following a meal
hypoglycemia low blood glucose level <60mg/dL
impaired fasting glucose (IFG) impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (risk factors for diabetes & CVD) metabolic stage intermediate between normal glucose homeostasis and biabetes; now referred to as PREDIABETES
insulin hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that is necessary for the metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats; insulind deficiency results in DM
islet cell transplantation investigational procedure, purified cadaver islet cells injected into the liver portal vein; hopes to secrete insulin and cure type1 diabeted
ketone highly acidic substance formed when liver breaks down free fatty acids in absence of insulin; (byproduct of fat breakdown) resulting in diabetic ketoacidosis
medical nutrition therapy MNT nutritional therapy prescribed for mgt of diabetes
nephropathy lont term complication of diabetes. kidney cells damaged. early stages microalbuminuria, progressing to end stage renal disease
neuropathy long term complication of diabetes resulting from damage to nerve cell
prediabetes impaired glucose metabolism. betweeen normal and diabetic. included IFG / IGT (risk factors for DM & CVD)
retinopathy long term complication of diabetes. ocular microvascular system damaged
self monitoring blood glucose SMBG method of capillary blood glucose testing / finger stick
sulfonylurea classification of oral antibiabetic med for type II DM. stimulates insulin secretion & action
thiazolidinedione class of oral antidiabetic med reduces insulin resistance enhances insulin action w/out directly stimulating insulin secretion
type 1(I) DM (insulin dependent DM) (juvenile DM) ABSENCE of insulin production/secretion from autoimmune destruction of beta cells of islets of langerhans in pancreas
type 2(II) DM (non-insulin dependent DM) (adult onset DM) deficiency of insulin production decreased insulin action and increased insulin resistance
glycosuria glucose in urine
metabolic syndrome 'prediabetes' 'syndrome x' to overcome insulin resistance & prevent glucose buildup increased amounts of insulin secreted to maintain normal level
insulinemia excessive insulin production
Created by: rtcdavis