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curry college

hypersenstive

QuestionAnswer
Immunologic, tissue-damaging reactions; an exaggerated response of the immune system to an antigen is known as what type of response? hypersensitivity
The term ________ is used to describe the clinical characteristics of hypersensitivity reactions. allergy
what refers to an acute reactions usually associated with a wheal-and flare type of skin reaction and vasodilation that may precipitate circulatory shock? Anaphylaxis - TYPE 1
what refers to the genetic predisposition, resulting form the same mechanism and chronically recurs in responses that depend on the antigen, frequency of contact, route of contact, and sensitivity of the organ system to the antigen. Atopy TYPE 1
what is the most common of hypersensitivity diseases? atopy type 1
atopy affects what systems? skin, respiratory , gastrointestinal
environmental allergens in atopy include? (type 1) pollen, dander, foods, insect bites, and cleaning agents.
Hypersensitivity reactions are initiated when the antigen binds to _______ attached to the surface of _____ cells. IgE antibodies, mast type 1
The IgE causes the release of intracellular granules that contain large amounts of? histamine and other chemotaxic substances. type 1
what tests measure IgE? RIST and RAST type 1
Anaphylactic shock occurs when the reaction becomes _________ and thus is a life threatening event. systemic type 1
The antigen-antibody reaction in shock causes the mast cells to release histamine and other mediators. type 1
The release of histamines and other mediators results in contraction of smooth muscle and increased vascular permeability, causing bronchospasm and loss of intravascular fluid. type 1
type II involves what antibody? IgG
type II involves the destruction of what? red blood cells, platelets or other target cells.
type II think ---- transfusions, ebf, (think fluid)
type II also think ---- ABO and Rh incompataility
The incompatible blood in type II reaction is coated with antibodies, causing _______ of the donor cells; followed by _____. agglutination, lysis
Transfusion reactions in type II can proceed to shock and even _____. irreversible renal failure.
EBF Can occur if a mother without Rh antigens carries a child with Rh antigens or if the mother and fetus have ABO _____. incompatibility
Immune complex disease results in the formation of antigen-antibody complexes that activate a variety of serum factors, especially complement. type III
Usually results from the injection of large doses of foreign material or drugs and can cause various types of arthritis, glomerulonephritis, and vasculitis. what type of reaction is this? type III
type III think ---- drug or serum
this reaction involves inflammation and cellular death at the site of an injection of an antigen into a previously sensitized person. Arthus’ reaction.
this reaction causes an acute, localized vasculitis that occurs from antibody precipitation and complement activation; the vasculitis causes platelets to adhere to vessels and causes thrombosis at the site of vessels. Arthus reaction
This response results from specifically sensitized T lymphocytes. type IV
Delayed hypersensitivity (example PPD testing) - what type of reaction? type IV
type IV -- think ______interaction with antigen specific
The T cells react with the antigen and release_______ that draw macrophages into the area in this type IV reaction. lymphokines
T cell response with a delayed reaction is also known as ____. Allergic eczematous contact dermatitis (AECD)
It occurs after contact with certain household chemicals, cosmetics, and plant toxins such as poison ivy (urushiol). Contact dermititis causes lesions only at the point of contact. type IV AECD
Rejection of tissue and transplanted organs involves hypersensitivity responses, either MHC or HLA? histocompatibility (HLA)
graft rejection is a complex reaction that involving which kind of responses? cell-mediated and humoral responses.
what kind of cells may either attack grafted tissue directly or secrete chemotaxic lymphokines that intensify the activity of macrophages in tissue destruction? Cytolytic T-lymphocytes
Primary process in transplant rejection is which type of reaction? type IV, cell mediated.
what type of matching of donor and recipient grafts greatly maximizes success. HLA
Break down of tolerance in which body’s immune system begins to recognize self antigens as foreign. aka? Autoimmunity
which group demonstrate many types of serum autoantibodies but show no evidence of disease. The elderly
what are the parts of autoimmunity? exposure to sequestered antigen neoantigen infection clone altered t-cells
A multisystem, chronic rheumatic disease that may assume several forms. SLE
SLE can be fatal if significant involvement occurs in which system/structure? glomerular capillaries; mostly affects women 20-40 years old
SLE affects? connective tissue, especially in the heart, glomeruli, blood vessels, skin, spleen, and retroperitoneal tissue.
what are other manifestations of SLE? stiffness and pain in the hands and joints.
Dx of SLE Antinuclear antibody (ANA)
A systemic, chronic inflammatory disease that specifically affects the small joints of the hands and feet in its early stages and involves the larger joints later. Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis appears to result from the development of the _______ antibody against _____ what Ig? rheumatoid factor (RF), IgG
RF-IgG complexes precipitate in synovial fluid, causing _______tissue to form and inflammatory cells called _____ to erode the articular cartilage. granulation, pannus
Clinical manifestations if RA include: rheumatoid nodules, necrotizing arteritis, cardiomyopathy, fatigue, weakness, joint stiffness, vague arthralgias, and morning stiffness.
Dx RA --- positive serum RF, mild leukocytosis with eosinophilia, and (ESR).
Latex Allergies increased dramatically after the CDC introduced universal precautions in _____. Latex allergy affects between _____ of workers in all health disciplines. 1987, 8-12%
Latex allergy also affects up to ___ of children with spina bifida and approximately ___ of the general population. 51% , 1%
Two types of allergies are associated with rubber: (1) chemical contact dermatitis, and (2) latex protein immediate hypersensitivity, which is termed latex allergy.
whats another name for "latex protein immediate hypersensitivity?" latex allergy
Chemical dermatitis is what type of reaction? delayed cell-mediated Type IV reaction
Latex allergy is what type of reaction that involves systemic antibody formation to proteins in products made from natural rubber? Type I IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction
Created by: nurd-sing