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68wm6 p2 Tho Dis

Thought Disorders

What is delirium? A rapid change in consciousness that occurs over a short time. Reversible.
List four causes of delirium: *Hypoxia *Electrolyte imbalances *Drugs *Pain *Fatigue *Infections
List four S/Sx of delirium: *Disorientation *Overwhelming anxiety *Tremors *Florid (elaborate/flamboyant) delusions *Illusions and/or hallucinations *Disturbed psychomotor activity *Sleep-wake cycles *Incoherence
What is Sun-downing syndrome? *Nocturnal delirium *Displays increased disorientation and agitation only during the evening or nighttime
What is the most common form of dementia? Alzheimers
What are delusions? A fixed, false belief that cannot be corrected by feedback and is not accepted as true by others in the culture
Give an example of delusional ideas of reference. Thinking someone on TV took your idea
Give an example of Somatic Delusions. Person thinking they have an illness with no proof
Give an example of delusional thought broadcasting “You know what I am thinking”
Give an example of delusional Thought Insertion “She put these thoughts in my head”
Give an example of delusional Thought Withdrawal “You have been stealing my thoughts!”
What complications and enviromental factors during pregnancy can increase the chances of child being schizophrenic? *Birth trauma *Mother contracting a virus like the flu, especially in 2nd trimester *Winter birth
What are the structural brain abnormalities in people with schizophrenia? *Enlarged lateral and third ventricles *Enlarged sulci *Brain atrophy *Hypofrontality (reduced activation in the frontal cortex)
How does dopamine relate to schizophrenia? *Excess of Dopamine in the center of the brain *Lowered Dopamine levels in the prefrontal cortex region
What does the schizophrenia vulnerability model propose? that each of us is endowed with a degree of vulnerability that under suitable circumstances will express itself in an episode of schizophrenic illness
What is Alogia? reduced content of speech
What is Anhedonia? inablity to experience pleasure
What is Avolition? lack of initiative/motivation
What are the S/Sx of schizophrenia? *Alogia *Anhedonia *Avolition *Attentional impairment *Affective flattening *Hallucinations *Delusions *Formal thought disorder *Repeated instances of bizarre or disorganized behavior
What are the four stages of schizophrenia? *Prodromal Phase: Begins with lack of energy or motivation *Prepsychotic Phase: Presents with desire to be left alone *Acute Phase: S/Sx vary; lose contact with reality *Residual Phase: Symptoms resemble prodromal phase
What are the antipsychotic (neuroleptic) drugs used in Tx of schizophrenia? *Clozapine *Risperidone *Olanzapine *Sertindol *Ziprasidone *Quetiapine
What blood disorder can clozapine cause? Agranulocytosis
How will antipsychotic medications affect epileptics? It lowers the seizure threshold (Increasing chances of seizure) so anti-seizure medications may need increased doses
What is Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome? *An extreme adverse reaction to antipsychotic drugs characterized by; *Rigidity with high fever *Water intoxication: Polydipsia with hyponatremia (life threatening)
What is Acute Extrapyramidal Syndrome? *An adverse raction to antipsychotic drugs *Dystonia: thick/protruding tongue, stiff neck, abnormal posture of upper limbs *Parkinson like symptoms *Akathisia: extreme restlessness/inability to sit still w/increased motor activity
What are the medications used to manage extrapyramidal side effects? *Cogentin *Artane *Symmetril
What is the evidence to support the genetic basis of schizophrenia? First degree relatives are 10 times more likely to develop schizophrenia than the general population
Clozapine (Clozaril) is used only for schizophrenic PTs who are what? unresponsive to other antipsychotic drugs
Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) is used to treat what in addition to schizophrenia? Uncontrolled hiccups
What is Tardive Dyskinesia? *Antipsychotic side effect *Rhythmic, involuntary movements of tongue, face, mouth or jaw *Tongue may protrude and there may be chewing movements, puckering of the mouth and facial grimacing
How often must PTs on antipsychotics be monitored for onset of akathisia, extrapyramidal, parkinsonian, and dystonia? every two months during therapy and 8-12 weeks after therapy has been discontinued
What must you do with a schizophrenic patient after administering parenteral neuroleptics? Keep patient recumbent for at least 30 minutes following parenteral administration to minimize hypotensive effects
How are PO neuroleptic medications to be administered? with food, milk, or a full glass of water to minimize gastric irritation
PO neuroleptic medication concentrates must be diluted in what? 120mL distilled or acidified water, or fruit juice
Created by: Shanejqb