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high molecular wt. proteins, capable of stimulating an immune response antigen
into of antigen, secreted by plasma cells antibody
what cells have the capacity to distinguish self, from non-self immunocompetent T and B lymphocytes.
part of the antigen, low molecular wt., hapten
too small to cause a stimulus reaction, must combine with other molecules to form antigenic substance hapten
larger molecule carrying the hapten are called? carriers
what characterizes "memory" in a antibody reaction? 1. prior exposure to antigen 2. development of specific immunocompetent cells.
antibody reacting to only one antigen specificity
antigen and T or B lymphocyte have ______ _______ to recognize the other specifically. surface receptors
specific immunoglobins recognize specific ________ antigens
immunity is formed as a result of two things 1. specificity 2. memory response
the ability to recognize foreign antigens from host cells and products self recognition
state of prevention and recognition of antigens by the lymphocytes tolerance
active suppression of immune system by suppressor T cells tolerance
Self-tolerance or the recognition of self-proteins is gained during which period fetal development
Histocompatibility Antigens (HLA Antigens), major histocompatibility complex (MCH), human leukocyte antigens found on surfaces of all cells except RBC
HLAidentify and are important in foreign tissue and graft reactions
how many HLA loci are ther 6, chromosome 6
each individual has one ______ located on each chromosome haplotype
Each parent passes on HLA haplotype to child; siblings share one haplotype with ____ siblings, two haplotypes with ____ 50%, 25%
HLA complex is important in determining two things 1.graft 2. transplant reactions.
what immunity relates to native or natural resistance relates to species specificity to antigens (animals different than humans) Natural Immunity
what immunity results from immune response after birth. Active acquired immunity produced by host after natural exposure to antigen or immunization. Acquired Immunity
what immunity means that preformed antibodies have been transferred to recipient (see IgG, think maternal antibodies to fetus, immune serum), not made. Passive immunity
Act as filters Lymph nodes
lymph nodes contain both a cortex (outer portion) and a medulla (inner portion)
Lymphocytes are formed in the _______ of the thymus-dependent zone consisting mostly of _________ cortical area, T-lymphocytes
what is located in the mediastinal area Thymus.
what processes lymphocytes and, during early years, produces them. thymus
what controls the production of lymphocytes in the lymph nodes Thymus
what is known to enhance T cell immunity Thymosin
A large mass of lymph and reticuloendothelial cells is known as the _____ Spleen
within the spleen, red pulp acts as a reservoir for both _____ and _______ blood and red blood cells.
White pulp is composed of ___ and _____ that function in immune processes. lymphocytes and macrophages
tonsils are made up of lymphoid tissue (palatine, lingual, and pharyngeal)
what are lymphoid tissue in the intestine and appendix called? Peyer’s patches
Lymphocytes are large, rough, spherical, deep-staining nuclei and have relatively little _____ cytoplasm
what is responsible for humoral - or immunoglobulin-mediated immunity (Ig). B-lymphocytes
B-cells originated where? human bursal equivalent (probably bone marrow)
B cells are capable of proliferating and differentiating into both ____ and ____ when exposed to antigen. plasma cells and memory cells
what explains how B-cells learn recognition of antigen. Clonal selection
what secrete large amounts of specific immunoglobulin Plasma cells
what begins at 8 wks gestation and continues throughout life. Generation of clonal diversity
Clonal selection theory states that large number of ______ with _______ are generated during fetal life, B cells with plasma membrane receptors
each ___ cell responds to only one antigen B cell
what are secreted by plasma cells Immunoglobulins
another name for antibody immunoglobulin (Ig)
The immunoglobulin molecule is arranged in how many peptide chains 4
Ig contain how many light and heavy chains 2 light and 2 heavy
Antigen binding fragments (FAB-two identical top fragments) include two components: 1.) recognition sites for antigenic determination 2.) specificity.
Crystalline fragment (Fc) is responsible for biological action of 3 areas: agglutination, precipitation and neutralization
Fc also interact with inflammation, clotting and maternal antibodies in fetus.
Chief functions of antibodies also have 3 respectabilities: (1) neutralize bacteria and viruses, (2) opsonize (mark) bacteria, (3) activate inflammatory process.
what is the largest Ig molecule IgM (10%)
first Ig molecule produced during immune response and infection IgM (10%)
which cells of placenta do not have Fc receptors for IgM, Trophoblast cells
which cells can't cross placenta? Trophoblast cells
TORCH testing detects what Ig IgM (10%)
what antibody is most commonly found in circulating fluids and tissues. IgG (80-85%)
which Ig is able to cross the placenta barrier? IgG (80-85%)
which Ig creates passive immunity - also found in breast milk? IgG (80-85%)
which Ig assumes the major burden of neutralizing bacteria and increasing phagocytosis IgG (80-85%)
which Ig is a secretory antibody, present in external body secretions, saliva, sweat, tears, mucous, bile, and colostrum. IgA (15%)
what protects exposed surfaces against pathogens in the lumen. IgA (15%)
what Ig appears to be present with IgM and may assist in recognition of specific antigens or as a receptor that binds the antigens to the cell surface. IgD
which Ig is reaginic antibody involved in hypersensitivity reactions IgE (0.004%)
which Ig is concentrated in serum and bound to mast cells. IgE (0.004%)
which Ig, when in contact with the antigen, triggers signs associated with allergy and anaphylaxis. IgE (0.004%)
are most immune responses polyclonal or momoclonal? , polyclonal
antigen stimulates a variety of B-lymphocytes to proliferate - this is known as what? polyclonal response
which type of antibodies act against specific antigen Monoclonal
which response produces a single clone of B-cells — typically used in treatment of CA and early detection of viral infections. momoclonal
Antibodies in tears, sweat, saliva, mucus, breast milk, protect against antigens that have not penetrated epithelium. this is considered what line of defense first line of defense.
defense that is local and external first line of defense
breast feeding antibodies, polio vaccination, oral vaccinations are known as what type of defense? first line of defense
Secretory response occurs locally and externally - in secretions, known as first line of defense
systemic response which occurs systemically and internally (in blood and tissues)
Seventy to eighty percent of blood lymphocytes mature under the influence of thymus
how are T-cells different from B-cells? They develop distinctive receptors on their surface
what structure do the T-cells migrate from thymus
where do T-cells reside? thymus-dependent zones within the lymph nodes.
Maturation of T cells requires what? thymic hormones.
what lymphocyte has the ability to recognize products of genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)? mature T-lymphocytes
Minimal reaction to self-MHC proteins is acquired or developed? acquired
high reaction to non-self or foreign proteins is developed or acquired? developed
what cells are a major defender against infected host cells or non-self cell such as transplanted tissue. T cells
what kind of immune response do T-cells have cell mediated
which cells attack some antigens directly Cytotoxic T (Tc)
which cells stimulate B-cells to differentiate into antibody producers. Helper T (Th) cells.
helper T cells work directly with what other cells? b-cells to stimulate and mature -- producing plasma cells -- and eventaully --> Ig
plasma cells produce Ig and memory cells
which cells reduce the humoral response. Suppressor T (Ts) cells.
The production of Ig can be either reduced or totally abolished in the presence of what cells suppressor T cells
suppressor T cells can control Ig by regulating the production of which cells B cells
suppressor T cells can inhibiting the activity of what cells helper T cells
which cells are partially dedicated to T cell line. NK (natural killer) cell.
which cells do not bind with antigens, but can recognize changes on target cells, bind to them, kill infected or malignant cells. NK (natural killer) cell.
lymphokine/cytokines are produced by which cells? T-cells
what activates macrophages. T-cells
interferon, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are part of which group of "signaling" cells? Lymphokines, - "signaling cells"
which substances establish a chemical gradient, drawing leukocytes, macrophages and other substances into the area. interferon, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
what transfers delayed hypersensitivity (Td) interferon, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
blood monocytes in tissues that act as phagocytes Macrophages
what removes foreign and devitalized material from the body Macrophages
what are better suited to long term defense against infectious agents - neutrophils or macraphages? Macraphages
in what type of environment can macraphages survive and divide? the acidic inflammatory site
Neither T nor B cells nor macrophages. Null cells
these cells are not phagocytic but resemble small or medium lymphocytes. Null cells
After about how many days can Ig specific to the antigen can be measured? usually which Ig? 6 days, IgM
Following initial IgM elevation in a primary response, which Ig appears at the tenth day? peaks after how much time? IgG, several weeks and remains much longer
On reintroduction (challenge) of the antigen in the second response, Ig production begins ____? almost immediately
during second response immunity, which Ig is produced immediately with higher titers against the antigen? IgG
responding to a second exposure, the system is able to act much faster- known as _____? memory response
what system is composed of 18 or more serum proteins or enzymes that participate with B-lymphocytes in humorally-mediated immune responses? Complement system
Components of the complement system are normally present in blood as what? inactive precursor molecules
The complement system promotes greater ______ inflammation
inflammation is increased in the complement system by 3 principles: 1. increasing cellular permeability 2. chemotaxis 3. phagocytosis
Results of the complement cascade tend to cause _______ normal tissue around the foreign tissue, and sometimes the host is affected ____. some damage, negatively
what is implicated in some autoimmune reactions The complement cascade system
Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is due to T-lymphocyte activity and involves direct contact between the _____and the _____? antigen, T-lymphocyte
Destruction of the antigen involves the release of soluble chemical compounds directly into the target cell membrane or though secretion of what? lymphokines
Simple proteins usually evoke what type of immunity? humoral immunity
complex proteins evoke what type of immunity? cell-mediated immunity
what type of immune function resides in the lymphocytes themselves cell-mediated immunity
what type of immunity cannot be transmitted passively by serum? CMI think TB
what type of immunity can be transmitted passively by serum? humoral immunity
what is it called when the T cells function to detect cells in the host that have foreign antigens on their surface? immunosurveillance
T cells that can be thought of as defensive cells that patrol blood and tissue spaces are called immunosurveillance cells
which cells provide immunologic surveillance against malignant tumors. T-lymphocytes (NK cells)
Created by: nurd-sing
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