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FINAL STUDY 29 MAR

QuestionAnswer
CLAIM STATEMENT of What Happened in the Experiment
EVIDENCE DATA from Observations that Support Claim
REASONING USE of Scientific PRINCIPLES (Laws) to CONNECT Data with Claim.
PHASE CHANGES MATERIAL PROCESS *ONE kind of Molecule/Substance, *Adding/Removing HEAT, *Molecules MOVE FASTER or SLOWER, *CHANGE into Another STATE: Solid, Liquid or Gas. *MOVE Closer or Farther Apart, *DON’T BREAK APART, *Same MOLECULAR STRUCTURE
COMMON TERMS for PHASE CHANGES FREEZE to Solid state, MELT to Liquid state, & EVAPORATE or BOIL to Gas state
MACROSCOPIC level PHASE CHANGE On MACROSCOPIC level: *Solids MELT, *Liquids BOIL/EVAPORATE or FREEZE, *Gases CONDENSE
MOLECULAR level PHASE CHANGE On MOLECULAR level: *Molecular Structures DO NOT CHANGE, *Molecules only MOVE Closer or Farther Apart, *Exactly SAME Types and Number of ATOMS B/A
MIXTURE MATERIAL PROCESS in which *TWO or MORE kinds of Substances, *COMBINE but, *Don’t INTERACT, Example: Sugar + Water + CO2 ==> Soda Pop (Sugar/Water/ CO2)
MACROSCOPIC level MIXTURE On MACROSCOPIC level: *Substances COMBINE but in NO SET RATIO, *Show NO CLUES of Chemical Reaction, *Each Substance SAME B/A, *So CAN’T MEASURE PROPERTIES OF their Mixed-up Substances.
MOLECULAR level MIXTURE On MOLECULAR level: *Molecules DON’T BREAK APART *Their ATOMS DON’T REARRANGE *Exactly SAME Types and Number of ATOMS B/A
CHEMICAL REACTION MATERIAL PROCESS in which * CLUES of Chemical Reaction *Molecules DO BREAK APART *Atoms DO REARRANGE * Form NEW MOLECULAR STRUCTURES *New Substances have DIFFERENT PROPERTIES *SAME Types and Number of ATOMS B/A (Law of Mass Conservation of M
MACROSCOPIC level CHEMICAL REACTION On MACROSCOPIC level: * May be CLUES of Chemical Reaction *Substances (Reactants) DO COMBINE *Substances (Reactants) DO INTERACT * Form NEW SUBSTANCES (Products) *New Substances (Products) have DIFFERENT PROPERTIES
MOLECULAR level CHEMICAL REACTION On MOLECULAR level: *Molecules (Reactants) DO BREAK APART *Atoms DO REARRANGE CHEMICALLY to from NEW MOLECULES (Products) *Exactly SAME Types and Number of ATOMS B/A (Law of Mass Conservation)
SIGNS or CLUES of Chemical Reaction *LIGHT produced *BUBBLING/FIZZING *TEMPERATURE CHANGE w/o Adding or Removing Heat *PRECIPITATE (Liquid + Liquid > Solid)
ELECTROLYSIS *CHEMICAL DECOMPOSITION Reaction *Uses ELECTRICAL Energy *Starts with Liquid WATER Molecules (Reactant) * BREAKS APART Water Molecules & *Ends with OXYGEN and HYDROGEN Gases (Products). 2H2O(Liquid) ==>electolysis==>2H2(gas) + O2(gas)
PROPERTIES of SUBSTANCES *UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS to Describe and Identify Substances: Examples: *COLOR *SMELL *TASTE *HARDNESS *SOLUBILITY *DENSITY *MELTING POINT
REACTANTS of Chemical Reaction BEGINNING or ORIGINAL SUBSTANCES—the “Old Stuff”
PRODUCTS of Chemical Reaction END SUBSTANCE(S) of Reaction
LAW of CONSERVATION of MASS (MATTER) SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLE, RULE or LAW that *NO MATTER HOW Substances INSERT with Each Other, the TOTAL MASS of the system always REMAINS the SAME. *Matter is NOT CREATED or DESTROYED. *ATOMS simply REARRANGE to form NEW MOLECULES (NEW SUBSTANCES).
OPEN SYSTEM? SOMETHING CAN ENTER or EXIT a System. Examples: Alka-Setzer experiment open glass. Rust on iron in open air.
CLOSED SYSTEM? SOMETHING can NOT ENTER or EXIT a System. Examples: Closed bag experiment, Electrolysis
What HOLDS ATOMS TOGETHER? ELECTRICAL FORCES
3 Parts of SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATION CLAIM EVIDENCE REASONING
Created by: familystudy22