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Nursing 2 Exam 3

What are the secretions from the Adrenal Cortex? 1. Glucocorticoids (Cortisol); 2. Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone); 3. Sex hormones
What are the secretions from the Adrenal Medulla? 1. Epinephrine; 2. Norepinephrine
What are the secretions from the Anterior Pituitary gland? 1. Growth hormone (GH or Somatotropic Hormone); 2. Prolactin; 3. Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH); 4. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH); 5. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH); 6. Folicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) & Leutinizing Horm(LH) (Gonadotropins)
What are the secretions from the Ovaries? 1. Estrogen; 2. Progesterone
What are the secretions from the Testes? Androgens (Testosterone)
What are the secretions from the Pancreas? 1. Digestive enzymes through the pancreatic duct into the duodenum; 2. Insulin; 3. Glucagon
What are the secretions from the Parathyriod gland? Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) - increases blood levels of Ca++. Secretions are regulated by the Ca++ level in the blood.
What are the secretions from the Pineal gland? Melatonin (helps with the Circannual and circadian rhythms)
What are the secretions from the Posterior Pituitary gland? 1. Oxytocin; 2. Antidiruretic Hormone (ADH)
What are the secretions from the Thymus gland? Thymosins (stimulate development and differentiation of T lymphocytes)
What are the secretions from the Thyroid gland? 1. Thyroxin (T4 - contains 4 iodine atoms); 2. Triiodothyronine (T3 - contains 3 iodine atoms) : influence metabolic rate, growth, & Development.
What hormone does the heart produce when there is a presence of too much blood in the circulatory system? Atrial Natriuretic Factor (ANF)which inhibits the release of ADH causing the excretion of excess water.
What are the hormones secreted from the Hypothalamus? Hypothalamic-releasing hormones
How does Adrenocorticotropic hormane (ACTH) affect the body? It triggers the Adrenal Cortex to release Cortisol which raises the glucose levels in the blood.
How is the production of Adrenocorticotropic hormane controlled? Hypothalmus releasing hormones stimulate the Anterior Pituitary glsnd to release the hormone.
How does Aldosterone affect the body? It acts primarily on the kidney to absorb Na and excrete K.
How is the production of Aldosterone controlled? Increased sodium in the blood cause retention of excess water. This causes the heart to produce ANF which inhibits the release of aldosterone.
How does Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) affect the body? Promotes reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules by increasing the permeability of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct of the kidney thereby regulating urine volume.
How is the production of Antidiuretic Hormone controlled? Controlled by a negative feedback system starting with the concentration of the blood. Too concentrated will trigger hypothalamus to trigger the posterior pituitsry gland to release ADH causing the kidney to reabsorb water which dilutes the blood.
How does Calcitonin affect the body? Stimulates the deposits of calcium in the bones.
How is the production of Calcitonin controlled? The secretion by the anterior pituitary gland is stimulated by high levels of calcium in the blood.
How does Cortisol affect the body? Raises level of glucose in the blood by stimulating the liver release stored glucose. It also reduces swelling (prednisone) by inhibiting the immune system.
How is the production of Cortisol controlled? Produced in response to stress.
How does Epinephrine & Norepinephrine affect the body? Fight or flight. Increased heart rate, faster blood flow, dilated airways, increased levels of glucose in the blood.
How is the production of Epinephrine & Norepinephrine controlled? Controlled by brain centers in response to stress (including the hypothalamus) via the sympathetic nerves.
How does Estrogen affect the body? Breast development, broadening of the pelvis.
How is the production of Estrogen controlled? LH (Leutinizing Hormone) stimulates the overies to produce Estrogen and Progesterone.
How many mL will cause moderate distention of the bladder? 200 - 250
How many mL will cause the bladder to feel uncomfortable? 400 - 600
What is the capacity of the bladder? 600 - 1000
Polyuria is defined as: >2000 mL/24h
Olyguria is defined as: 100 - 400 mL/24h
Anuria is defined as: <100 mL/24h
Pyuria is: Puss in the urine
Elevated BUN and Creatinine levels indicates: Kidney failure
Elevated BUN, normal Creatinine leves indicate: Dehydration
What are the 5 P's Pain, Pulse, Pallor, Parasthesia, & Paralysis
What is a Goiter? Enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Graves disease Buldging wide eyes, Extraoccular edema, Goiter, can lead to hypothyroidism
Addison's disease Bronze pigmentation of skin, changes in distributon of body hair, GI Disturbances, Weakness, Weight loss, Postural hypotension, hypoglycemia
Compartment Syndrom Neurovascular
Cushings Syndrome From Adrenal Gland Hyperfunction, Hyperglycemia, Moon face, thin extremities
Pagets disease Bone Pain, parathyriodism
Arthroscopy Hip spika cast
Serum calcium and secretion of PTH are directly or inverse related? Inverse related in the normal state, directly related in Hyper/Hypo
Hyperparathyriodism classifications: Primary Benign parathriod tumor (Adenoma)
Hyperparathyriodism classifications: Secondary A compensatory response to conditions that cause hypocalcemia
Hyperparathyriodism classifications: Tertiary Hyperplasia of the parathyriod glands & loss of normal negative feedback mechanism
Hypoparathyriodism Manifestations Tetany (tingling of lips, fingertips, laryngospasm), Change in personality, anxiety
Diagnostic studies for hypoparathyriodism Positive Trousseau's signs or Chvostek's sign
Positive Trousseau's sign is what? BP cuff on for three minutes causes the wrist and fingers to flex.
Positive Chvostek's sign is what? Tap in front and below the ear (facial nerve) and look for facial twitching.
Adrenal gland hypofunction Addison's disease
What is Pheochromocytoma? A catecholamine producing tumor, usually a single lesion in the right adrenal gland.
Pheochromocytoma S/S are: Severe episodic HTN accompanied by the classic triad of symptoms.
Classic triad of symptoms Severe pounding headache, tachycardia, diaphoresis with palpitations
A patient with hyperthyriodism for a long time will also have high cholesterol, leading to CAD and atherosclerosis. True/False False (Hypothyroidism)
Corticosteroid dosages must be gradually decreased ot tapered to avoid adrenal insuffiency. True/False True
What is the most common type of hyperthyroidism? Papillary
Cushing's syndrome and Addison's disease are examples of abnormal what? Adrenal activity. Hypofunction (addison's) Hyperfunction (Cushing's)
The primary function of _____ hormone is to control cellular metabolic activity and maintain body metabolism. Thyroid
Hand tremors, intolerance to heat, and weight loss are common symptoms of what? Hyperthyroidism
Signs & Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism include: renal calculi and bone deformities True/False True
The most definitive treatment for a Pheochromocytoma is an _______. Adrenalectomy
A buffalo hump, moon face, and osteoporosis are classic symptoms of __________. Cushing's syndrome
What is necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones? Iodine
Calcitoninis produced in response to: High circulating calcium
What is the defined ratio (waist to hip) that is not considered overweight. < 0.80
Created by: brian.belson