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research test 3

ch. 13 data collection

data collection the gathering of info that can be observed, measured, and reported to address a research problem *includes demographic data-- age, race, gender, education, income, marital status, employment, and other defining characteristics
where is the data collection most frequently found in a report? the method section
data collection in a study -determine which method to use and which data to collect (depends upon nature of the problem, availability of Ss, setting, time, and cost of collecting and recording)
data collection methods -self report (quantitative and qualitative) -observation (quantitative and qualitative) -biophysical measures (quantitative)
self report method data collected by asking Ss questions (orally or in a written format) concerning beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, traits, or knowledge *susceptible to errors of social desirability
quantitative self report -use of a structured instrument (interview or written questionnaire) in a numerical format using closed ended or open ended questions *ex: satisfaction with care, smoking cessation strategies attempted, degree of cardiac disability..
qualitative self report -use of unstructured or semi structured interview in a narrative format using open ended questions (what the experience entails, what is relevant, what cognitive processes involved) *ex: adjustment of AD caregivers, coping of pending organ recipients..
open ended questions -different options for responses -Ss control response -easy to construct -specialized more time to answer (in depth responses) -difficult to analyze
closed ended questions -same options for responses -Ss forced to choose response -difficult to construct -standardized -less time to answer (superficial responses) -easy to analyze
types of closed ended questions 1. dichotomous (yes-no, true-false) 2. multiple choice (4>3 or 5 options) 3. rank order (most to least, first to last) 4. rating questions (0-10 scale)
how to increase rate of questionnaire return **mean return rate: 30-60% (>60% excellent) -include cover letter, stamped addressed envelope -provide clear instructions -use brief, easy to complete questionnaire -reiterate anonymity of responses -mail reminder in several wks
other structured questionnaires -scales -vignettes
scales -opinions regarding the strength or intensity of an attribute that correspond to a score on a continuum using positive and negative statements as end points (Likert scale)
vignettes -reactions to descriptions of hypothetical situations
observation method -data collected by observing Ss behaviors or events (primarily objective data) -susceptible to ethical restrictions, faulty inferences, researcher bias (d/t emotions, prejudices, values)
quantitative observation -use structured observation via a checklist or rating scale for classifying observed behaviors or events (presence, frequency, severity) -researchers,not Ss, record or rate behaviors or events of interest ex:level of consciousness w/ glasgow coma scal
qualitative observation *ex: development of breast cancer support group -use unstructured observation via log or field notes to extract meaning from observed behaviors or events -researcher may assume a participant observer role to determine who, what, when, where, why, and how of an issue
biophysical measure *objective data -data collected via assessment of measures concerning biophysical processes
biophysical measures continued accuracy of biophysical information, extent to which biophysical measures are within "normal" range, efficacy of interventions, how health care affects health outcomes etc)
biophysical measures -specialized instruments and training may be required -acquisition of data may have potential to harm body -lengthy informed consent form may be required -data not easily distorted, thus most accurate and precise data collection method -variable c
objective data: signs -TPR, BP, O2 sat -height, weight, BMI -edema, LNs, EOMs -pupil size, wd. depth -seizure type, strength -CMP, CBC, lipid level -ABG, C+S, EKG, CT
subjective data: symptoms -depression -pain, headache -dizziness -nausea, fatigue -dysuria, tinnitus -heartburn -blurred vision
Created by: lissy11