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Rocks & Fossils

Ch. 3 Science Test on: The Rock and Fossil Record

QuestionAnswer
The branch of Earth Science Geology
A principle that states that the same geologic processes shaping the Earth today have been at work throughout Earth's history Uniformitarianism
A principal that states that all geologic change occurs suddenly Catastrophism
A principal that states that younger rocks lie above older rocks in undisturbed sequences Superposition
An ideal sequence of rock layers that contains all known fossils and rock formations on Earth arranged from oldest to youngest Geologic column
A break in the Earth's crust along which blocks of the crust slide relative to one another Fault
Molten rock from the Earth's interior that squeezes into existing rock and cools Intrusion
Occurs when rock layers bend and buckle from Earth's internal forces Folding
Occurs when internal forces in the Earth slant rock layers without folding them Tilting
A surface that represents a missing part of the geologic column Unconformity
Exists where part of a sequence of parallel rock layers is missing Disconformity
Exists where sedimentary rock layers lie on top of an eroded surface of non-layered igneous or metamorphic rock Nonconformity
Exists between horizontal rock layers and rock layer that have tilted or folded. The tilted or folded layers were eroded before horizontal layers formed above them Angular unconformity
A process of establishing the age of an object, such as a fossil or rock layer, by determining the number of years it has existed Absolute dating
Radioactive isotopes tend to break down into stable isotopes of other elements in a process called... Radioactive decay
Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but have different number of neutrons Isotopes
Determining the absolute age of a sample based on the ratio of parent material to daughter material is called... Radiometric Dating
The time it takes for one-half of a radioactive sample to decay is called a... Half life
Three types of radiometric dating include: Uranium-lead method, potassium-argon method and the carbon-14 method
Any naturally preserved evidence of life Fossil
Fossils in rocks, mineral replacement, fossils in amber, mummification, frozen fossils and fossils tar are all examples of what? Fossils
Any naturally preserved evidence of an animal's activity is called a... Trace fossil
Preserved feces, or dung, from animals Coprolites
A cavity in the ground or rock where a plant or animal was buried Mold
An object created when sediment fills a mold and becomes rock Cast
Created by: Brickwall1313
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