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Chem Rev Sheet March

Chem Rev 29Mar Test

QuestionAnswer
What is a CLAIM? It is a STATEMENT that tells WHAT HAPPENED or ANSWERS a QUESTION in an INVESTIGATION or EXPERIMENT
What is EVIDENCE? It is the DATA COLLECTED from OBSERVATIONS or TESTS to SUPPORT a CLAIM
What is REASONING? A way of CONNECTING the EVIDENCE (DATA) to the CLAIM by using SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES (Rules)
1a. What are PHASE CHANGES / CHANGE OF STATE? *Matter CHANGES into SOLID or LIQUID or GAS *by ADDING/REMOVING HEAT *Molecules MOVE FASTER (+heat) or SLOWER (-heat) *Molecules DON’T BREAK APART *SAME MOLECULES & STRUCTURES B/A
1b. In PHASE Changes, what are COMMON TERMS of clues that a change of state has occurred? FREEZE to Solid state MELT to Liquid state EVAPORATE or BOIL to Gas state
1c. In PHASE changes what happens on the MACROSCOPIC level? *Solids MELT into Liquids (i.e. Ice cubes to water) *Liquids BOIL (or EVAPORATE) into Gases (i.e. Water to Vapor) or FREEZE into Solids (i.e. Water to Ice) *Gases CONDENSE into Liquids (vapor to rain) or FREEZE into Solids (i.e. vapor to snow)
1d. In PHASE changes what happens on the MOLECULAR level? Molecular Structures DO NOT CHANGE. Example: H2O(Solid) ==> H2O(Liquid) ==> H2O(Gas) H2O(Solid) ⇐ H2O(Liquid) ⇐ H2O(Gas)
2a. What is a MIXTURE? *2 or More SUBSTANCES *NO INTERACTION of molecules Example: Sugar + Water + CO2 ==> Soda Pop (Sugar/Water/ CO2)
2b. In a MIXTURE what happens on the MACROSCOPIC level? 1) Substances COMBINE, but DO NOT INTERACT CHEMICALLY to form new Substances 2) The Substances are SAME BEFORE and AFTER they Combine. 3) Can’t measure same properties at same temperature BECAUSE each SUBSTANCE reacts to temperature differently.
2c. In a MIXTURE what happens on the MOLECULAR level? 1) MOLECULES do NOT BREAK APART and ATOMS do NOT REARRANGE. 2) SAME MOLECULES before and after. 3) SAME TYPES of ATOMS before and after.
3a. What is a CHEMICAL REACTION? *NEW Substances *DIFFERENT Properties *MOLECULES BREAK APART and ATOMS REARRANGE * SAME Atoms B/A * SAME NUMBER of Atoms B/A
3b. In a CHEMICAL REACTION what happens on the MACROSCOPIC level? 1) SUBSTANCES COMBINE and INTERACT to form NEW SUBSTANCES 2) These have DIFFERENT PROPERTIES from the original substances
3c. In a CHEMICAL REACTION what happens on the MOLECULAR level? 1) MOLECULES BREAK APART and their ATOMS REARRANGE CHEMICALLY to form NEW MOLECULES. 2) The SAME TYPES OF ATOMS that are in the REACTANTS are in the PRODUCTS.
3d. What are SIGNS or CLUES that a Chemical Reaction has taken place? *LIGHT produced *BUBBLING/FIZZING *TEMPERATURE CHANGE w/o Adding or Removing Heat *PRECIPITATE (Liquid + Liquid > Solid)
3e. Compare the PROCESS of PHASE CHANGE: *BEFORE it takes place *AFTER it takes place *WHAT HAPPENS to Atoms & Molecules *Before this process: ONE SUBSTANCE *After this process: STILL have SAME SUBSTANCE *What happens to Atoms & Molecules: Move CLOSER together or FARTHER APART
3f. Compare the PROCESS of MIXTURE: *BEFORE it takes place *AFTER it takes place *WHAT HAPPENS to Atoms & Molecules *Before this process: TWO or MORE SUBSTANCES *After this process: Have the SAME TWO or MORE SUBSTANCES that you started with *What happens to Atoms & Molecules: ATOMS do NOT REARRANGE to form new Substances.
3g. Compare the PROCESS of CHEMICAL REACTION: *BEFORE it takes place *AFTER it takes place *WHAT HAPPENS to Atoms & Molecules *Before this process: ONE or MORE SUBSTANCES *After this process: Have ONE or MORE DIFFERENT SUBSTANCES than the ones you started with *What happens to Atoms & Molecules: MOLECULES BREAK APART and REARRANGE in new ways to FORM NEW SUBSTANCES
4. What is ELECTROLYSIS? Is it a CHEMICAL REACTION, a MIXTURE, or a PHASE CHANGE? Discuss WHAT HAPPENS during Electrolysis. It is a: *CHEMICAL DECOMPOSITION Reaction that *Uses ELECTRICAL Energy *Starts with Liquid WATER Molecules (Reactant) * BREAKS APART Water Molecules & *Ends with OXYGEN and HYDROGEN Gases (Products). 2H2O(Liquid) ==>electolysis==>2H2(gas) + O2(gas
5. What are PROPERTIES of SUBSTANCES? UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS that scientists use to DESCRIBE and IDENTIFY SUBSTANCES. Examples: COLOR SMELL HARDNESS SOLUBILITY DENSITY MELTING POINT
6a. What are REACTANTS in a Chemical Reaction? The BEGINNING or ORIGINAL SUBSTANCES—the “Old Stuff” of a Chemical Reaction
6b. What are PRODUCTS in a Chemical Reaction? The END SUBSTANCE(S) of a Chemical Reaction.
7. What is the LAW of CONSERVATION of MASS (MATTER)? *NO MATTER HOW Substances INSERT with EACH OTHER, the TOTAL MASS of the system always REMAINS the SAME. *Matter IS NOT CREATED or DESTROYED. *ATOMS simply REARRANGE to form NEW MOLECULES (NEW SUBSTANCES).
8a. What is an OPEN SYSTEM? A SYSTEM in which SOMETHING can ENTER or EXIT. Examples: Alka-Setzer experiment open glass. Rust on iron in open air.
8b. What is a CLOSED SYSTEM? A SYSTEM in which SOMETHING can NOT ENTER or EXIT. Examples: Closed bag experiment, Electrolysis
9. What HOLDS ATOMS TOGETHER? ELECTRICAL FORCES
Created by: familystudy22