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chapter 11 SAB

sustaining aquatic biodiversity

What are aquatic species most threatened by? habitat loss, invasive species, pollution, climate change, and over exploitation
where does the greatest marine biodiversity occur? coral reefs, estuaries and the deep ocean floor
Why is biodiversity higher near coasts than in the open ocean? there is a greater variety of producers and habitats in coastal areas
Why is biodiversity higher in the bottom region of the ocean than in the surface region? there is a greater variety of habitats and food sources on the ocean bottom
what threats does the acronym HIPPCO help us remember Habitat loss and degradation, invasive species,populations growth, pollution, climate change, overfishing
Why are invasive species a threat? they can displace or cause the extinction of native species and disrupt ecosystem services
what about climate change threatens aquatic biodiversity? Climate change causes the sea levels to rise destroying coral reefs and swamping low lying islands
Overfishing Deplete the stock of fish in (a body of water) by too much fishing
Fishprint the area of ocean needed to sustain the consumption of an average person, a nation, or the world
Commercial extinction when it is no longer profitable to continue fishing the affected species
why has the fishing industry begun shifting from large species to smaller ones? it reduces the breeding stock needed for recovery of depleted species which unravels marine food webs and disrupts marine ecosystems and their services
byatch nontarget species caught in fishing boats nets
biological extinction a species is no longer found anywhere on earth due to overfishing, water pollution, wetland destruction and excessive removal of water from rivers.
what group of species is threatened with extinction by human activities the most marine and freshwater fishes
Trawler fishing used to catch fishes and shellfish especially shrimp, cod, flounder, and scallops that live on or near the ocean floor
purse-seine fishing used to catch surface dwelling species such as tuna, mackerel, and herring, which tend to feed in schools near the surface or in shallow areas
longlining putting out lines up to 130 km long hung with thousands of baited hooks
drift net fishing fish are caught by huge drifting nets that can hang as deep as 15 meters below the surface
Cetaceans order of mostly marine mammals ranging in size from .9 meter porpoise to the gians 15-30 meter blue whale
toothed whale porpoise, sperm whale and killer whales who bite and chew their food and feed mostly on squid octopus and other marine animals
Baleen Whales blue, gray, hump back, minke, and fin are filter feeders.
whats the worlds largest animal? blue whale
The international whaling commision mission to regulate the whaling industry by setting annual quotas to prevent overharvesting and commercial extinction
exclusive economic zones foreign fishing vessels can take certain quotas of fish within such zones
high seas ocean areas beyond the legal jurisdiction of any country
marine protected areas areas of ocean partially protected from human activity
marine reserves areas put off limits to destructive human activites in order to enable their ecosystems to recover and flourish
what island nation created the worlds largest protected marine reserve pacific island nation of kiribati
intergrated coastal management community based effort to develop and use coastal resources more sustainable
maximum sustained yield modeled to project the maximum number of fish that can be harvested annually from fish stock without causing a population drop
optimum sustained yield modeled to project the maximum number of fish that can be harvested annually from fish taking in account interactions among species and provide more room for error
multispecies management takes into account their competitive and predator prey interactions
precautionary principle reducing fish harvests and closing some overfished areas until they recover aand until we have more information about what levels of fishing can be sustained
comanagement coastal communities and the government work together to manage fisheries
individual transfer rights government gives each fishing vessel owner a specified percentage of the total allowable catch for a fishery in a given year
mitigation banking allows destruction of existing wetlands as long as an equal area of the same type of wetland is created or restored
comprehensive everglades restoration project largest ecological restoration project to partialy restore the everglades
sea lamprey one of the biggest invasive species threats to the great lakes
wild rivers rivers that are relatively inaccessible (except by trail)
Scenic rivers rivers of great scenic value that are free of dams mostly undeveloped and accessible in only a few places by roads
Created by: kcbruch