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FA/DIT autonomics

QuestionAnswer
alpha 1 receptor functions vasoconstriction, mydriasis, urinary and bowel retention
alpha 2 receptor functions decreased sympathetic outflow, decreased insulin release
beta 1 receptor functions increased heart rate, increased contractility, increased renin, increased lipolysis
beta 2 receptor functions vasodilation, bronchodilation, increased heart rate, increased contractility, increased lipolysis, increased insulin, decreased uterine tone
M1 receptor functions CNS, enteric nervous system
M2 reception functions decreased heart rate, decreased contractility
M3 receptor functions increased secretions, bronchoconstriction, miosis, accomodation
D1 receptor function relaxes renal vascular smooth muscle
D2 receptor function modulates transmitter release, esp in brain.
H1 receptor function increased mucus, bronchoconstriction, pruritis, pain
H2 receptor function increased gastric acid secretion
What are the symptoms of excess parasympathetic activity DUMBELSS
What drug regenerates acetylcholinesterases after organophosphate poisoning? Pralidoxime
What drug reverses the symptoms of organophosphate poisoning? Atropine
Bethanechol, Pilocarpine, Carbachol, Methacholine direct cholinomimetics
Neostigmine, Pyridostigmine, Edrophonium, Physostigmine, Echothiophate indirect cholinomimetics (anticholinesterases)
Rivastigmine, Galantamine, Donepezil Alzheimer''s anticholinesterases
Tensilon test sx of MG improve when given Edrophonium
Hot as a hare, dry as a bone, red as a beet, blind as a bat, bloated as a toad, mad as a hatter symptoms of inhibiting parasympathetic activity
-trop- muscarinic antagonist
Benztropine, Scopolamine, Oxybutynin, Glycopyrrolate, Ipratroprium, Homotropine, Atropine, Tropicamine muscarinic antagonists
Oxybutynin, Tolterodine, Darifenacin, Solifenacin, Trospium anticholinergics used to treat urge type urinary incontinence
In what pt populations is atropine contraindicated? Acute-closure glaucoma, Urinary retention (BPH), GI obstruction (ileus), Dementia, Delirium, Elderly, Infant with fever
Meds with anticholinergic side effects? 1stG H1 blockers, Traditional neuroleptics, TCAs, Amantadine
What is the mechanism of action of organophosphate poisoning? Excess cholinergic activation of muscarinic receptors.
What drug is best for reversal of organophosphate poisoning? pralidoxime (2PAM)
What drug would improve FEV1 in a patient with COPD? Ipratropium
How do you treat urinary retention due to a neuroleptic? Bethanechol
Dark: both eyes dilated. Light: control pupil is miotic, while pupil with Drug stays mydriatic. What is the drug? Atropine
Acetyl CoA + Choline = Acetylcholine
What enzyme catalyzes the creation of ACh? ChAT (choline acetyltransferase)
What enzyme inhibits the RLS of ACh synthesis? Hemicholinium
Precursors to NE Dopamine, Dopa, Tyrosine
Enzyme for Tyrosine to Dopa Tyrosine Hydroxylase
What drugs inhibit the release of NE? Guanethidine, Bretylium
What drugs stimulate the release of NE? Amphetamines, Ephedrine, Tyramine
What drugs inhibit the reuptake of NE? Cocaine, TCas, amphetamines
What enzymes metabolize NE once released? COMT, MAO
What toxin inhibits the release of ACh? Botulinum toxin
What toxin stimulates the release of ACh? Black widow spider toxin
What cotransporter kicks of ACh and NE synthesis? Na
What ion allows for vesicle release? Ca
What reactions take place in Phase 1 metabolism? Cyt. P450: oxidation, hydrolysis, and reduction
What reactions take place in Phase 2 metabolism? Conjugation: Acetylation, Glucuronidation, Sulfation
How many half lives does it take for a drug infused at a constant rate to reach 94% of steady state? 4.5
What variables determine the half life of a drug? Clearance, Volume of distribution
What receptor does Clonidine stimulate? A2
What receptor does Dopamine stimulate? D1=D2>B>A
What receptor does Phenylephrine stimulate? A1>A2
What receptor does Albuterol stimulate? B2>B1
what receptor does Norepinephrine stimulate? A1, A2> B1
What receptor does Isoproterenol stimulate? B1=B2
What receptor does Epinephrine stimulate? A1, A2, B1, B2
What receptor does Dobutamine stimulate? B1>B2
What receptor does Terbutaline stimulate? B2
Sympathomimetic giver as a nebulizer for asthma Albuterol
drug of choice for anaphylaxis epinephrine
most common first line agent for pts in cardiogenic shock dobutamine
Most common first line agent for pts in septic shock NE
given subQ for asthmas Epi
Used by ENT to vasoconstrict nasal vessels Cocaine
Used to treat ADHD Amphetamine
What drug would theoretically be most appropriate in a pt in shock becaues it maintains renal blood flow? Dopamine
5 classes of drugs used to treat glaucoma? alpha agonists, beta blockers, cholinomimetics, diuretics, PGF2
What are the common side effects of beta blockers? impotence, asthma and CHF exacerbation, bradycardia, AV block
Clinical use of dopamine? Shock tx
Clinical use of clonidine anti-HTN in pts with kideny issues
Clinical use of amphetamine ADHD, narcolepsy, obesity, MDD
clinical use of terbutaline reduce premature contractions, asthma
clinical use of epinephrine anaphylaxis, glaucoma, asthma, hypotension
propranolol, timolol, labetalol nonselective beta blockers
metoprolol, atenolol, esmolol B1 selective beta blockers
Prazosin, Terazosin, Phenoxybenzamine, Phentolamine alpha blockers
Hexamethonium Nicotinic antagonist
Clonidine, alpha-methyldopa centrally acting A2 agonists, decrease central adrenergic outflow
Created by: kayjames