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Muscular System

muscular exam 1

Leg Muscles (anterior) Quadriceps Rectus femoris Vastus lateralis Vastus medialis Vastus intermedius Adductor group Tibialis anterior
The Motor Unit 1 motor unit = junction between 1 neuron + many muscle fibres
Leg muscles (posterior) Gluteus maximus Hamstrings Biceps femoris Semimembranosus Semitendinosus Gastrocnemius Soleus
Muscle Tissue - Three Types Skeletal / Striated / Voluntary Smooth / Non-striated / Involuntary Cardiac / Striated / Involuntary
Skeletal Muscle Organisation Muscles are organised as follows, from macrostructure to microstructure: Muscle Fascicle Muscle Fibre Myofibril Myofilament Sarcomere
Myofibrils Rodlike contractile element. Occupy most of the muscle cell volume Appear banded - A bands - dark, I bands - light Composed of sarcomeres - arranged end to end
Functions of Muscle Tissue Movement of a particular limb (external movement) of materials inside the body Posture to keep us upright Stabilisation to stabilise joints Heat Production70% of energy used by muscles is transferred into heat (released by breakdown of ATP)
Movement (voluntary) Nearly all movements of the human body are a result of muscle contraction Mobility of body as a whole reflects activity of skeletal muscles, responsible for all locomotion (walking for example) and manipulation
Movement (involuntary) Smooth muscle of blood vessel walls and cardiac muscle of the heart - which work together to circulate blood and maintain blood pressure and the smooth muscle of other hollow organs, which forces fluids and other substances through internal body channels
Posture Yet, they function almost continuously, making one tiny adjustment after another so that we can maintain an erect or seated posture despite the never-ending downward pull of gravity
Stabilisation As the skeletal muscles pull on bones to cause movements, they also stabilise the joints of the skeleton
Heat Production Since skeletal muscle accounts for at least 40 percent of body mass, it is the muscle type most responsible for heat generation
Characteristics of Muscle Tissue Excitability- ability to respond to a stimulus Contractibility- muscle can become shorter and thicker Extensibility- able to stretch Elasticity- ability to return to original shape and size
Cardiac Muscle Tissue Striated -but muscle fibres are branching and fit together like clasped fingers (allows cardiac muscle to act as a unit) Not under conscious control - self exciting Can beat by itself, but CNS can accelerate and decelerate heart-rate
Myofilaments Thread like structures - make up myofibrils 2 proteins arranged as Thin or Thick filaments These 2 slide past each other - create contraction Arrangement of myofilaments in myofibrils, produces banding pattern in skeletal muscle
Sarcomere contractile unit composed of myofilaments filaments made up of contractile proteins
Posterior Muscles Trapezius Deltoid Latissimus dorsi Rhomboids Triceps brachii
Anterior Muscles Sternocleidomastoid Deltoid Pectoralis major Biceps brachi Rectus abdominis External oblique
Created by: 1109385690