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neurologic emergency

Neurologic emergencies core concepts including anatomy

QuestionAnswer
what kind of assessment is more important than neurological observations/assessment? ABC assessment
State the lobes of the brain Frontal, Parietal, Occipital and Temporal
What are the three sections of the brain stem called? Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla oblongata
If the frontal lobe is damaged, how may this manifest? May include: mental flexibility impairment, loss of smell, socialisation can diminish or increase; perceptions re risk taking and rule abiding are impaired. damage can result in mood changes
What is the temporal lobe responsible for? formation of long term memory; senses of smell and sound, as well as processing of complex stimuli can produce hallucinations
What is the parietal lobe responsible for? plays important roles in integrating sensory information from various senses, and in the manipulation of objects; sections are involved with visuospatial processing
Occipital lobe is responsible for? sense of sight
Where is the cerebellum located? under the occipital lobe
What is the cerebellum involved with? equilibrium, muscle tone, co ordination of voluntary muscle activity
What is the midbrain responsible for? Controlling Responses to - Sight, Eye, Movement, Pupil Dilation, Body Movement, Hearing
Which functions is the pons responsible for? Arousal; Controlling Autonomic Functions;Relaying Sensory Information Between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum;Sleep
What are the functions of the medulla oblongata? Control of Autonomic Functions; Relay of Nerve Signals Between the Brain and Spinal Cord; Coordination of Body Movements
What is the reticular activating involved with? many important functions, including sleep and waking, behavioral motivation, breathing, and the beating of the heart. Trauma to this area can cause a coma.
Where do the neurones of the reticular formation start and extend to? Start in the brainstem and extend through the hypothalamus and thalamus
RAS in brainstem is responsible for maintaining consciousness and awakening from sleep
RAS in thalamus is responsible for mental activity
What is habituation? Habituation is when the RAS 'trains' itself to ignore repetitive, inconsequential stimuli .eg. nighttime traffic
What are the two components to consciousness? awareness or cognition and arousal or state of wakefulness
What does an alteration in the level of consciousness indicate? an alteratiion or decrease in the level of consciousness is the earliest and most significant indicator of neurological change
level of consciousness is evaluated by providing the least amount of stimuli possible to obtain a response. What kind of stimuli are utilised? auditory; tactile and pain
Normal level of consciousness can be defined as: being awake, aware and making appropriate interaction with your environment when not asleep
What is obtundation? The patient is not yet comatose but is close, arousing only with very strong stimulus
what s the approximate volume of the cranial contents? Brain 80% - 1400ml; Blood 10% 150ml; CSF 10% - 150ml
Define the modified Monro-Kellie Hypothesis An increase in one constituent or an expanding mass within the skull results in an increase in intracranial pressure
What is ICP? Intracranial pressure
what are the major compensatory mechanisms of ICP control? displacement of CSF; decreased production of CSF; increased absorption of CSF.
Where is CSF displaced? lumbar theca; behind the eye
What are the minor compensatory mechanisms? Reduction of blood volume - venous shunting; and displacement of intra and extracellular fluid in brain tissue
Created by: sarlagandhi