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AP U.S. Government

Chapter 10

Judicial Review Power of the courts to review acts of other branches and states
Judiciary Act of 1784 Established the basic three tiered structure of the Federal Court system
Marbury V. Madison Case in which the Supreme Court established judicial review
Trial Court Court of original jurisdiction where cases begin
Apellate Court Court that reviews only findings of law made by a lower court
Jurisdiction Authority vested in a particular court to hear and decide the issue in any particular case
Original Jurisdiction The jurisdiction of courts that hear a case first, usually in a trial. Detrmine the facts of the case
Apellate Jurisdiction Power vested in particular courts to review and/or revise the decision of a lower court
Criminal Law Codes of behavior related to the protection of property and individuals
Civil Law Codes of behavior related to business and contracural relationships between groups and individuals
Constitutional Courts Federal courts specifically created by the constitution or by congress pursuant to its authority in Article 3
Legislative Courts Courts established by congress for specialized purposes
Brief A document containing legal written arguments in a case field with a court by a party prior to a hearing or trial
Precedent A prior judicial decision that serves as a rule for setting subsequent cases of a similar nature
Stare Decisis In court rulings, a reliance on past decisions or procedures to formulate decisions in new cases
Senatorial Courtesy Process by which presidents generally defer selection of district court judges to the choice of senators of their own party who represent the state where the vacancy occurs
Writ Of Certiorari A request for the Court to order up the records from a lower court to review the case
Rule of Four At least four justices of the Supreme Court must vote to consider a case before it can be heard
Amicus Curiae "Friend of the court";amici may file briefs or even appearto argue their interests orally before the court
Judicial Restraint A philosophy of judicial decision making that argues courts should allow the decisions of other branches of government to stand, even when they offend a judge's own sense of principles
Judicial Activism A philosophy of judicial decision making that argues judges should use their power broadly to further justice, especially in the areas of equality and personal liberty
Strict Constuctionist An approach to constitutional interpretation that emphasizes the Framers' original intentions
Judicial Implementation How and whether judicial decisions are translated into actual public policies affecting more than the immediate parties to a lawsuit
Created by: khelmick