Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

ACID/BASE BASICS

QuestionAnswer
Cabonic Acid = Carbonic acid = H2CO3
Bicarbonate (base) = Bicarbonate (base) = HCO3-
The ↓serum pH the ↑ or ↓ the H+? The ↓serum pH the ↑ the H+?
The ↑serum pH the ↑ or ↓ the H+? The ↑serum pH the ↓ the H+?
If the blood is ACIDIC the force of cardiac contractions __? If the blood is ACIDIC the force of cardiac contractions DIMINISHES
If the blood is ALKALINIC neuromuscular fxn becomes__? If the blood is ALKALINIC neuromuscular fxn becomes IMPAIRED
A blood pH below__ or above __ is usually fatal A blood pH below 6.8 or above 7.8 is usually fatal
normal RATIO bicarb (HCO3-): carbonic acid (H2CO3)? normal RATIO 20:1 bicarb (HCO3-): carbonic acid (H2CO3)
The 3main blood, ECF & ICF chemical buffers are? -Bicarbonate (HCO3-) -Phosphate & Protein
The lungs regulate serum CO2 Which combines with H2O to form ? Lungs → CO2 + H2O = H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
Normal PaCO2 Partial Pressure ArterialCO2? Normal PaCO2 35-45 mmHg
Normal serum bicarbonate HCO3-? Normal HCO3- 22-26 mmEq/L
When blood is ACIDIC kidneys __HCO3- and __ H+ When blood is ACIDIC kidneys REABSORB HCO3- and EXCRETE H+
When blood is ALKALINE kidneys __HCO3- and __ H+ When blood is ALKALINE kidneys EXCRETE HCO3- and RETAIN H+
If imbalance is respiratory which values will be abnormal? If imbalance is RESPIRATORY PaCO2 (serum CO2) abnormal
If imbalance is metabolic which values will be abnormal? If imbalance is METABOLIC SERUM HCO3- abnormal
HYPOVENTILATION causes? Respiratory ACIDOSIS (retained CO2)
Values of Respiratory Acidosis? pH <7.35 PaCO2 > 45 mmHg HCO3- normal
HYPERVENTILATION causes? Respiratory ALKALOSIS (eliminate too much CO2/anxiety)
Values of Respiratory Alkalosis? pH > 7.45 PaCO2 < 35 mmHg HCO3- normal
Metabolic Acidosis values? HCO3- < 22 mmEq/L pH <7.35 PaCO2 normal
Metabolic Alkalosis values? HCO3- >26mmEq/L pH > 7.45 PaCO2 normal
(MEMORIZE) NORMAL ABG VALUES Ph: 7.35 - 7.45 PaCO2: 35 - 45 mmHg HCO3-: 22 – 26 mmEq/L
In RESPIRATORY acid/base imbalance which 2 values move in opposite directions? pH and PaCO2
In RESPIRATORY acid/base imbalance pH and PaCO2 move in what direction? In RESPIRATORY acid/base imbalance pH and PaCO2 move OPPOSITE directions
In METABOLIC acid/base imbalance what 2 values move in same direction? pH and HCO3-
In METABOLIC acid/base imbalance pH and HCO3- move in what direction? In METABOLIC acid/base imbalance pH and HCO3- move in SAME direction
(MEMORIZE) ABNORMAL ABG VALUES AS ACIDIC / ALKALINE? Basic < 35 PaCO2 45 > Acidic Acidic < 7.35 pH 7.45 > Basic Acidic < 22 HCO3 26 > Basic
process to determine a/b imbalance? -List and compare pH, PaCO2, HCO3 with normal values. -write A, B or N next to results -circle same letters(A,B,N) -circled pH/PaCO2=respiratory -circled pH/HCO3=metabolic -circled all 3=combined
Respiratory ACIDOSIS primary issue? alveolar hypOventilation
Causes of RESP ACIDOSIS -acute pulmonary edema -CNS depression/oversedation -chronic resp disease -severe resp infection - < mechanical ventilation
Respiratory ALKALOSIS primary issue? alveolar hypERventilation
Causes of RESP ALKALOSIS -anxiety-fear-pain -exercise/heart failure -early sepsis/fever -> mechanical ventilation -hypoxemia/liver failure
Metabolic ACIDOSIS primary issue? > acid (H2CO3) < bicarb (HCO3-)
Causes METABOLIC ACIDOSIS > acid causes -renal failure/ketoacidosis -severe sepsis -anaerobic metabolism -starvation -salicylate intox
Causes METABOLIC ACIDOSIS < bicarb (HCO3-) -anhydrase inhibitors -diarrhea -hypERKalemia -intestinal fistulas
Metabolic ALKALOSIS primary issue? > bicarb (HCO3-) < acid (H2CO3)
Causes Metabolic ALKALOSIS > bicarb(HCO3-) -excessive antacids -excessive bicarb -lactate admin/dialysis
Causes Metabolic ALKALOSIS < acid (H2CO3) -loop thiazide diuretics -steroids -vomiting / NG suction -hypOKalmeia / hypOChloremia
Treatment of severe metabolic acidosis? IV Bicarb (sodium bicarb?)
Treatment of metabolic alkalosis? Replace fluid, sodium, potassium
Treatment of respiratory acidosis? Improve ventilation -bronchodilators -mechanical ventilation
Treatment of respiratory alkalosis? -Slow respiratory rate -Rx anxiolytic -pain relief if indicated -paper bag breathing (haha!)
Created by: rtcdavis