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F&E1

Fluid and Electrolytes

QuestionAnswer
What is the percentage of body water in an adult? 60%
What is the amount of fluid in ICF? 2/3 of TBW
What is the amount of fluid in ECF? 1/3 of TBW
What percent of water drop can cause fatigue? 2%
What percent of water drop can cause significant health problems? 10%
What is ICF? All fluid inside the cell.
What is ECF? All fluid outside the cell, with 3 compartments.
What is interstitial fluid? Contains lymph, is the fluid between the cells and outside the blood vessels.
What is intravascular fluid? Blood plasma found in the vascular space.
What is transcellular fluid? Fluid separated by other fluids by a cellular barrier (i.e. CSF, Pleural, GI, Intraocular, Synovial fluids.)
Name 4 electrolyte cations? Na⁺, K⁺, Ca²⁺, and Mg²⁺
Name 3 electrolyte anions? PO₄³⁻, Cl⁻, HCO₃⁻
What is Na⁺ levels? 135-145 mEq/L
What is Ca²⁺ level? 8.5-10.5
What is K⁺ level? 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
What is HCO₃⁻ level? 22-26 (arterial) mEq/L 24-30 (venous) mEq/L
What is Cl⁻ level? 95-105 mEq/L
What is PO₄³⁻ level? 2.8-4.5 mg/dl
What does mEq/L represent? The number of grams of the specific electrolyte (solute) dissolved in a Liter of plasma (solution).
Compromised of salts and large molecule colloids that do not easily dissolve? Solute
The solution in which a particle is dissolved in? Solvent
Fluid(water) moves passively from an area with more fluid and fewer solutes to an area with less fluid and more solutes? Osmosis
The amount of substance in solution in the form of molecules, ions, or both? Osmols
The drawing power of water and depends on the number of molecules in solution? Osmotic Pressure
Reflects the total solute concentration in a fluid compartment? Osmolality
Normal serum osmolality? 275-295 mOsm/kg
Reflects the number of molecules in a Liter of solution? Osmolarity (mOsm/L)
Tends to keep fluid in the intravascular compartment by pulling water from the interstitial space back into the capillaries? Colloid Osmotic or Oncotic pressure.
Movement of solutes from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration? Diffusion
The difference between 2 concentrations? Concentration Gradient
Isotonic solution? Equal, same, in balance.
Hypertonic Solution? Shrink, shrivel, draw fluids out.
Hypotonic solution? Rupture, grow, draw water in.
Causes movement of fluids form an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure? Hydrostatic Pressure
Requires energy to move substances? Active Transport
Primarily regulate fluid intake? Thirst mechanisms, (Hypothalamus)
Continually monitor the serum osmotic pressure? Osmoreceptors
Average adult fluid intake? 2200-2700 ml/day
The by-product of cellular metabolism of ingested solid fluids? Water Oxidation ( Oxidative Metabolism)
Is stored in the posterior pituitary gland and is released in response to changes in blood osmolarity? Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Prevents diuresis, thus causing the bay to save water? Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH)
What initiates RAAS? Changes in Afferent renal perfusion
A proteolytic enzyme secreted by the kidneys, responds to decreased renal perfusion secondary to a decrease in ECF? Renin
Where is Aldosterone released? Renal Cortex
Is a hormone secreted from atrial cells of the heart in response to atrial stretching and an increase in circulatory blood volume? Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
Is continuos and occurs through the skin and lungs? Insensible water loss
Occurs through excess perspiration and can be perceived by the client through inspection? Sensible water loss
THe major anion in ECF? Chloride
The major cation in the ECF? Sodium
The major chemical base buffer within the body? Bicarbonate
These 2 electrolytes are inversely proportional? Calcium and Phosphate
The first buffering system to react to changes in the pH of ECF and it reacts in seconds? Carbonic-Acid/Bicarbonate Buffer System (CABBS)
Occurs when hydrogen ions are absorbed or released by cells? Biological Buffering
What are 2 physiological buffers in the body? Kidneys and Lungs
Takes from a few hours to several days to regulate acid-base balance. The Kidneys
What is the most common cause of hypokalemia? Renal Failure
Results from illness which directly affects the thyroid and parathyroid glands? Hypocalcemia
Carpopedal spams with hypoxia? Trousseaus Sign
Contraction of facial muscles when facial nerve is tapped. Chvostek's Sign
In what 2 electrolyte imbalances are C&T tests positively present? Hypomagnesemia and Hypocalcemia
The 2 basic types of fluid imbalances? Isotonic and Osmolar
Deficit and excess exist when water and electrolytes are gained or lost in equal proportions but osmolality remains unchanged. Isotonic Imbalance
Are losses or excesses of only water that affect the concentration (osmolality) of the serum. Osmolar Imbalances
What is PaCO₂ level? 35-45mmHg
What is PaO₂ level? 80-100mmHg
Scantly urine production? Oliguria
BUN level? 7-20mg/dl
Is the result of hypoventilation? Respiratory Acidosis
Is the result of hyperventilation? Respiratory Alkalosis
Results because of high acid content in the blood. Metabolic Acidosis
When plasma leaves the intravascular space and becomes trapped edema. Plasma-to-Interstitial Shift
Occurs when too little ADH is secreted and the client excretes large volumes of diluted urine with a low specific gravity. Diabetes Insipidous
Continuos excess secretion of ADH? Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone
Is the number of osmols of solute in a Kilogram of solvent. Osmolality
Is the number of osmols of solute in a Liter of solution. Osmolarity
Each kilogram (2.2 lb.) of weight gain or lost is equal to how much fluid? 1 Liter
What would the specific gravity be like for a dehydrated person? >1.010
Require restricted fluid intake? Fluid Volume Excess (FVE)
S&S are ↓ RR and depth, hypotension, and flushing? Hypermagnesemia
An ↑ in Na⁺ will increase what? ↑ Cl⁻
HCO⁻₃ is regulated by what organ? The kidneys
Steroids will ↑ or ↓ weight? Increase
Where is the first place to check for dependent edema? Sacral Region
What is the most accurate lab test that shows function of kidney? Serum Creatinine (0.5-1.2)
What is the Bicarb to Carbonic Ratio? 20:1
What is normal Bicarbonate level? 22-26 mEq/L
How often should I.V. tubing be replaced? Q 72hrs
How often should TPN infusion sets be changed? Q 24hrs
7 Rights of Medication? Drug, Dose, Patient, Route, Date/Time, Documentation, Purpose.
what is the best measure of fluid retention or loss? Daily Weights
Another name for blood and blood components? Colloids
Another name for fluids and electrolyte therapy? Crystalloids
Too fast of an infusion causing lightheadedness/dizziness, chest pain, facial flushing, and irregular pulse. Speed Shock
Causes Neuro Vasoconstriction, leading to syncope, lightheadedness K⁺ shifts into the cells. Metabolic Alkalosis
Causes Neuro Vasodilation, K⁺ shifts out of the cells. Metabolic Acidosis
Created by: BOjangles1006