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68wm6 p2 Can Bod Sys

Cancer of Body Systems

QuestionAnswer
In 60% PTs with carcinoma of the oral cavity, it already spread to where by the time of diagnosis? The neck
What is the characteristic sign of carcinoma of the oral cavity? Leukoplakia
What is leukoplakia? white, firmly attached patch on the mouth and tongue mucosa
What are the S/Sx of carcinoma of the oral cavity? *Lesion, lump leukoplakia > 2 wks *Pain, soreness, bleeding *Numbness, dysphagia, loss of feeling
What is the Tx of stage 1-3 carcinoma of the oral cavity? Stage 4? Surgery and/or Radiation, Palliative
90% of carcinomas of the esophagus are what type? Squamous cell carcinomas
When is carcinoma of the esophagus usually detected? In the late stage
What is the characteristic sign of carcinoma of the esophagus? Dysphagia
What diets put a PT at increased risk for cancer of the stomach? *Food preserved with nitrates *Frequent meals cooked over charcoal *Diets high in salt
Fill in the blanks: A PT is diagnosed with cancer of the stomach and is complaining of pain. As a nurse you know that pain is a _____ symptom Late
What is the only curative approach/therapeutic management of stomach cancer ? subtotal or total gastrectomy
What virus is liver cancer often associated with? Hep B and C
List 4 S/Sx of liver cancer: *Hepatomegaly, ascites, portal hypertension *WT loss *Peripheral edema *Dull ABD pain-RUQ *Jaundice *Anorexia *Frequent pulmonary emboli *Positive AFP
Only what percentage of PTs with liver cancer are surgically resectable? 30 - 40%
What is the Tx for PTs with liver cancer? *Treatment is largely palliative *Chemotherapy has a poor responce *Lobectomy for localized tumors
Symptoms of cancer of the gall bladder are similar to what? Cholecystitis
What condition of the liver is liver cancer difficult to differentiate from? Cirrhosis
What diet is pancreatic cancer linked to? diet high in meat, fat and coffee consumption
What is the estimated life span of PTs diagnosed with liver cancer? 4 - 7 months
What is the estimated life span of PTs diagnosed with pancreatic cancer? 4 - 8 months
What S/Sx is present in 85% of pancreatic cancer cases? Pain
What are the S/Sx of pancreatic cancer? *Steady, dull and aching pain in the epigastrium or referred to the back; usually worse at night *Weight loss *Jaundice *Pruritis
Why are total pancreatectomies prefered over subtotal pancreatectomies in PTs with pancreatic cancer? Subtotal pancreatectomy has complications of postoperative pancreatic fistulas and is not recommended
What is a Whipple procedure? Total pancreatectomy with stomache anastomized to intestine
What will a PT with late stage colon cancer C/O of? of abd pain, nausea, and cachexia ( weakness and emaciation with general ill health and malnutrition)
What are the S/Sx of colon cancer? *Vomiting *Weight loss *Abd distention, ascites *Chronic blood loss and anemia
What is the MOST common clinical manifestation of colon cancer? chronic blood loss and anemia
What is the most reliable tool for diagnosing colon cancer? A fecal occult blood exam followed by a proctosigmoidoscopy
What is found in the serum of PTs with cancer? carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) (a glycoprotien found in a malignant and non malignant growths)
True or False: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a defining diagnostic finding of malignant carcinomas False. It can be elevated in benign and malignant diseases.
When is surgical anastomosis of the bowel NOT done as Tx for colon cancer? If obstruction is present
What surgical procedure for colon cancer done if obstruction is present? one stage resections with anastomosis or a two stage resection bringing the ends of the bowel to the surface of the abdomen for closure later
What is done in a right hemicolectomy? resection of ascending colon and hepatic fixture. The ileum is anastomosed to the transverse colon
What is done in a left hemicolectomy? resection of splenic flexure, descending colon and sigmoid colon. The transverse colon is anastomosed to the rectum
What is done in an Anterior rectosigmoid resection? resection of part of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the upper rectum. The descending colon is anastomosed to the remaining rectum
Fill in the blanks: β€œIn carcinoma of the rectum, every effort is made to preserve the _________” Sphincter
What is done pre-op to prep the PT with colon cancer for surgery? *Bowel prep with 2-3 days of liquid diets; laxatives to include GoLYTELY or enemas *Oral antibiotics to sterilize bowel
Why is it important to auscultate bowel sounds post-op colon cancer surgery? Paralytic ileus is a common complication of abdominal surgery
What is Mitrolan? Antidiarrheal, laxative, bulk forming agent; used in the treatment of diarrhea or constipation
You should avoid giving antacids within 2 hours of what? Other medications
What does Cimetidine (Tagamet) and Ranitidine (Zantac) do? Inhibits gastric acid
How does Metamucil (Psyllium) work? On contact with water this drug produces a bland, lubricating, gelatinous bulk, which promotes peristalsis and natural elimination
Metamucil (Psyllium) should be used with caution in whom, and why? Use Caution with elderly, may aspirate the mixture
Within how long does Metamucil (Psyllium) have a laxative effect, and within how long is regularity established? Laxative effect in 12- 24 hours. Give for 2-3 days to establish regularity
Retrosternal pain in a PT on Metamucil (Psyllium) may indicate what? the drug is lodged as a gelatinous mass in the esophagus
Why may Metamucil (Psyllium) be contraindicated for DM and patients on low Sodium diets? because of its sugar and sodium content
Fill in the blanks: Most skin tumors are _______, but they can predispose the person to ______ _______ Benign, Malignant tumors
What is a Verruca? Viral lesion that is contagious; rough papillomatous growth (Wart)
What is an Angioma? a group of blood vessels dilate and form a tumor like mass that appear as a non-elevated stain on the skin. An example of an angioma is a birthmark
What is an Osteogenic Sarcoma? A primary malignant bone tumor that is seen in young people, fast growing and aggressive tumor that affects the long bones. Seen primarily between the ages of 10 and 25
What is an Osteochondroma? The MOST common benign osteogenic tumor, usually affect the humerus, tibia, and femur
What are the clinical manifestations of osteochondroma? *Spontaneous fractures - cancer cells cause a decrease in the strength of the bone *Anemia – caused by cancer invasion into the long bone which disrupts the production of red blood cells bone marrow
What is Hypertrichosis? Excessive growth of hair, including areas where hair normally doesnt grow.
What is Hypotrichosis? The absence of hair or a decrease in hair growth
What is Paronychia? A disorder where the nails get soft or brittle
Created by: Shanejqb