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68wm6 p2 Car Pat Can

Care of the Patient with Cancer

What is the process by which normal cells transform into cancerous cells? Carciogenesis
How are tumors named? *The parent tissue *Location of the growth *Cellular makeup *Person by whom it was identified
What characterizes a grade 4 tumor? Most unlike the parent tissue and therefore the most malignant
What is the only sure diagnostic test for tissue malignancy? Biopsy
What is an incisional biopsy? biopsy in which only a sample of the suspicious tissue is cut into
What is an excisional biopsy? removing the entire lesion
What is a needle aspiration biopsy? a needle is used to aspirate (draw out) fluid or tissue from a lesion or mass.
What 'marker' found in a blood test can indicate the presence of prostate cancer? PSA
Where are radioactive isotopes and dyes cleared, and what is important to do to facilitate this? Kidneys, proper hydration
What is considered to be the first and best option for management of malignant cancer? Surgical removal
What may be surgically removed to help control the growth and spread of cancer made worse by hormonal stimulation? Pituitary, adrenal glands, ovaries, or testes
What is the management of malignant cancer that spreads to the lymph nodes? Radiation therapy
What may be done for a PT who has a tumor too large to remove safely? Radiation may be used preoperatively to shrink the tumor
What form of radiation therapy allows a highly concentrated dose of radiation to be applied directly to the cancerous tissue and minimizes the radiation of healthy tissue? Sealed Internal Radiation implant therapy (Radioactive material is placed directly inside or near tumor)
How long may an implant from Sealed Internal Radiation Implant Therapy be in place? Hours to days
True or False: Children under 18 years of age and pregnant women are allowed to visit Sealed Internal Radiation Implant Therapy patients because the implant is sealed and secured in the tumor. False. Children under 18 years of age and pregnant women should not be allowed to visit implant patients
Visitors to patients with an Sealed Internal Radiation Implant should be instructed to do what? should stand as far away from the patient as possible and limit visit time to 10 minutes
What are complications related to Sealed Internal Radiation Implant Therapy? *Bleeding *Fever *Rash *Vaginal discharge
How often should the position of the Sealed Internal Radiation Implant Therapy be checked? q4h
What may be prescribed to a chemo patient to improve RBC production? Erythropoietin (Epogen, Procrit)
What may be needed if a chemo PTs hematocrit drops below 28%? Packed RBC?
What CBC deficiencies arise from chemo therapy? *Anemia *Thrombocytopenia *Leukopenia *Neutropenia
Due to the risk of thrombocytopenia from chemo therapy, what must the chemo patient be instructed to avoid? Patients should be taught to avoid activities that may cause bleeding such as stiff toothbrush, rectal suppositories, shaving with blades, potentially traumatic activity and use of aspirin
Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS) is how much of a concern? High concern, it is an oncologic emergency
What does Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS) result from? rapid destruction of cancer cells
What does Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS) cause? a buildup of high levels of potassium, phosphate, and uric acid in the patient's bloodstream, and possibly decreased serum calcium.
What are early signs of Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS)? *N/V/D *Anorexia *Muscle weakness and cramping
What are late signs of Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS)? *Tetany *Seizures *Anuria *Cardiac arrest
What is the medical Tx of Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS)? *Diuretics and Hydration to help excrete toxic substances. *Allopurinol and sodium bicarbonate to reduce uric acid crystal formation. *Kayexalate to help bind and excrete potassium.
If medical management fails to resolve Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS), what may be done? Dialysis
What cancer PTs are at more risk for Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS)? PTs on chemo and with large tumors
When does Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS) occur? anywhere from 24 hours to 7 days after anti-neoplastic therapy is started
What serum levels are altered in a PT suffering from Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS)? *Potassium *Phosphorus *Calcium *Uric acid
What is Leukopheresis? (Peripheral Stem Cell Transplant) The process that results from the drug induced mobilization of bone marrow stem cells from the bone to blood circulation.
How long does Leukopheresis take? 2-4 hours
Created by: Shanejqb