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CARDIAC TERMS

cardio terms -ch 26 p684-707

QuestionAnswer
ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME rupture of an etheromatous plaque in a diseased coronary artery, which rapidly forms an obstructive thrombus
AFTERLOAD the amount of resistance to ejection of blood from the ventricle
APICAL IMPULSE 'point of maximum impulse' PMI impulse normallly palpated @ 5th intercostal space, left midclavicular line; caused by contraction of the left ventricle
Atrioventricular node AV node secondary pacemaker of the heart, located in the right atrial wall near the tricuspid valve
barorecepters nerve fibers located in the aortic arch and carotid arteries that are responsible for reflex control of the blood pressure
cardiac catheterization in invasive procedure used to measure cardiac chamber pressures and assess patency of the coronary arteries
cardiac conduction system specialized heart cells strategically located throughout the heart that are responsible for methodically generating and coordinating the transmission of electrical impulses to the myocardial cells
cardiac output amount of blood pumped by each ventricle in liters per minute (L/Min)
cardiac stress test used to evaluate the fxn of the heart during a period of increased O2 demand
contractility ability of the cardiac muscle to shorten in response to an electrical impulse
depolarization electrical activation of a cell caused by the influx of sodium into the cell while potassium exits the cell (Na+ IN / K+ OUT)
DIASTOLE period of VENTRICULAR RELAXation resulting in VENTRICULAR FILLING
EJECTION FRACTION % of the end-diastolic blood volume ejected from the ventricle with each beat
hemodynamic monitoring use of pressure monitoring devices to directly measure cardiovascular fxn
hypertension blood pressure that is persistently greater than 140/90 mmHg
hypotension decrease in blood pressure to < 100/60mmHG WHICH COMPROMISES SYSTEMIC PERFUSION
MURMURS sounds created by abnormal, turbulent flow of blood in the heart
myocardial ischemia condition in which heart muscle cells receive less O2 than needed
myocardium muscle layer of the heart responsible for the pumping action of the heart
normal heart sounds S1 = AV VALVES TRICUSPID & BICUSPID/MITRAL S2 = SEMILUNAR VALVES AORTIC / PULMONIC
OPENING SNAPS abnormal DIASTOLIC sound generated during opening of RIGID AV VALVE leaflet
postural (orthostatic) hypotension a signigicant drop in BP after assuming upright posture (usually 10mmHg)
preload DEGREE OF STRETCH of the cardiac MUSCLE FIBERS at the END OF DIASTOLE
PULMONARY VASCULAR RESISTANCE resistance to RIGHT ventricular ejection of blood
radioisotopes unstable atoms that emit small amounts of energy in the form of GAMMA rays; used in cardiac nuclear med studies
repolarization RETURN of the cell to a RESTING STATE, caused by re-entry of POTASSIUM (K)into cell, while SODIUM (Na) exits (K = in / Na = out)
S1 first heart sound closing of AV valves tricuspid & bicuspid/MITRAL
S2 second heart sound closing semilunar valves aortic / pulmonic
S3 ABNORMAL HEART SOUND EARLY DIASTOLE RESISTANCE TO BLOOD ENTERING EITHER VENTRICLE most often volume overload assoc. w. heart failure
S4 abnormal heart sound LATE DIASTOLE resistance to blood entering either ventricle during atrial contraction.. ~most often ventricular hypertrophy
sinoatrial node SA node primary PACEMAKER of the heart, located in the right atrium
stroke volume amount of blood ejected from the ventricle per beat
summation gallop abnormal sound created during TACHYCARDIA by the presence of an S3/S4
systemic vascular resistance resistance to LEFT VENTRICULAR EJECTION
systole period of VENTRICULAR CONTRACTION resulting in ejection of blodo from the ventricles into the aorta & pulmonary artery
systolic click abnormal systolic sound created by the OPENING OF A CALCIFIED AORTIC or PULMONIC VALVE during ventricular contraction
telemetry process of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring by the transmission of radio waves from a battery-operated transmitter worn by the patient
CVD CardioVascular Disease
CAD Coronary Artery Disease
HF Heart Failure
CVA CerebroVascular Accident-stroke
MEDIASTINUM (location of heart) space between the lungs
Created by: rtcdavis