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ch 21 Assess Resp Fx

ASSESS RESP FXN

QuestionAnswer
APNEA TEMP CESSATION OF BREATHING
BRONCHOSCOPY DIRECT EXAM OF LARYNX, TRACHEA, AND BRONCHI, USING ENDOSCOPE
BRONCHOPHONY abnormal increase in clarity of transmitted voice sounds
COMPLIANCE measure of the force req'd to expand or inflate lungs
DIFFUSION exchange of gas molecules from high to low concentration
EGOPHONY abnormal change in tone of voice on auscultation
FREMITUS vibrations of speech felt as tremors of chest wall on palpation
HEMOPTYSIS expectoration of blood from resp tract
HYPOXEMIA DECREASE in arterial O2 tension IN THE BLOOD
HYPOXIA DECREASED O2 supply to the TISSUES & CELLS
OXYGEN SATURATION / O2 SAT % hemoglobin bound to O2
PULMONARY PERFUSION blood flow through the pulmonary vasculature
RESPIRATION gas exchange between: air-blood blood-cells
RHONCHI low pitched, wheezing or snoring sound on auscultation. Associated with partial airway obstruction
STRIDOR harsh high pitched sound on INSPIRATION, secondary to UPPER AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. Usually heard w/out steth.
TIDAL VOLUME (VT OR TV) normal breathing, volume inspired-expired w. each breath
VENTILATION mvmt of air through airways
AGE RELATED RESPIRATORY CHANGES reduced alveolar surface area ...loss of alveolar elasticity...reduced tidal flow & vital capacity...= reduced O2-CO2 exchange / DECREASED O2 DIFFUSION
MAJOR S/S OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE Dyspnea, cough, sputum, chest pain, wheezing, hemoptysis (expectorated resp. blood)
ARDS ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME
S/S ARDS tachynea, dyspnea, progressive hypoxemia, following lung trauma, shock, bypass, multiple blood transfusions...
COPD dyspnea with expiratory wheezing
WHAT CONDITIONS predispose / often show ORTHOPNEA? orthopnea may be found in pts. w/ heart disease and occassionally in COPD (p.495)
The presence of both inspiratory and expiratory wheezing usually signifies.... ...Asthma (if the patient does not have heart failure) (p496)
profuse amount of purulent sputum (thick, yellow - green - or rust colored)or a change in sputum color is s/s of..... Respiratory Bacterial Infection
Thin mucoid sputum results from... viral bronchitis
pink tinged mucus suggests... lung tumor
profuse, frothy, pink mucus, often welling up in throat may indicate... pulmonary edema
foul smelling sputum and bad breath indicate lung abscess, bronchiectasis, or anaerobic infection
RISK FACTORS FOR RESPIRATORY DISEASE SMOKING!!! 2ND HAND SMOKE EXPOSURE, GENETICS, ALLERGENS, RECREATIONAL-OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
GENETIC INFLUENCES OF RESPIRATORY DISEASE.. ASTHMA, COPD, CYSTIC FIBROSIS, Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
CLUBBING OF FINGERS... S/S of lung disease. Pts with chronic hypoxic conditions: chronic lung infections, malegnancies. Initially sponginess of nail bed & gradual loss of nail bed angle
CYANOSIS bluish coloring of skin, LATE S/S of hyoxia
PERIPHERAL CYANOSIS.. results from decreased blood flow to periphery / vasoconstriction / cold exposure / MAY/MAY NOT indicate systemic issue
BARREL CHEST.. results from over inflation... EMPHYSEMA
FUNNEL CHEST.. depression lower portion of sternum..may compress heart&great vessels..may result in murmurs.. RICKETS OR MARFAN'S SYNDROME
PIGEON CHEST.. results from sternum displacement..RICKETS, MARFAN'S SYNDROME, SEVERE KYPHOSCOLIOSIS
KYPHOSCOLIOSIS / KYPHOSIS.. elevation of scapula & s shaped spine..limits lung expansion.. OSTEOPOROSIS, other skeletal disorders
ATELECTASIS when airflow is decreased by bronchial obstruction
RISK FACTORS FOR HYPOVENTILATION: limited neurological impulses (brain), depressed respiratory center - medullary (anesthesia, drug OD), limited thoracic/lung mvmt or reduced lung function
Arterial O2 (PaO2) & Arterial CO2 (PaCO2 indicate.... ALVEOLAR VENTILATION ADEQUACY
ABG arterial blood gas: assess LUNG O2/CO2 fxn .. assess KIDNEY ability to reabsorb/excrete bicarbonate (maintains normal pH)
SpO2 pulse ox: continuous monitoring O2 sat of hemoglobin Assess:SUDDEN OR SUBTLE CHANGES Normal = 95-100%
SpO2 < 85% (95% ??) = tissues not receiving enough O2 FURTHER ASSESSMENT NEEDED IMMEDIATELY!
Respiratory Dx Tests = pulmonary fxn tests (PFT's) ABG (PaO2/PaCO2) Pulse Ox (SpO2) Throat/Nasal cultures Sputum Studies Imaging (x-ray, CT, MRI, PET,) Endoscopy / Biopsy
Created by: rtcdavis