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S2 Science Exam

Heredity and Cell Cycle

Define Chromosomes in eukaryotic cells, a structure in the nucleus made up of DNA and protein; in prokaryotic cells, the main ring of DNA
Homologous chromosomes chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure, they pair up together
Describe mitosis. Which cells does it happen in? a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes. happens in eukaryotic cells
What is binary fission? What type of cells does it happen in? is when a bacteria cell splits into two parts and each has a copy of the circle of DNA. Happens in prokaryotic cells.
What is the cell cycle? What does it result in eukaryotic cells? life cycle of a cell, from when it is formed to when it divides; produces more cells
List the steps of the cell cycle in order. Interphase, Mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase), Cytokenesis
What happens in interphase? cell grows, chromosomes (containing DNA) and organelles are copied
What are chromatids? what the two copies of chromosomes are called after they are duplicated in interphase
What is the centromere? Where the chromatids are held together during interphase
What happens in prophase? chromosomes condense from long strands into rod-like structures, each has two identical copies called chromatids
complex eukaryotes have _____ chromosomes than simpler ones more or less, it varies
What happens in metaphase? The chromosomes line up at equator of the cell and nuclear membrane fully dissolves
What happens in anaphase? The chromatids separate into two groups and move to opposite sides of the cell
What happens in telophase? A nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromosomes . chromosomes unwind, mitosis is complete
What happens in Cytokenesis in cells without a cell wall? The division of cytoplasm the cell pinches in two, so two new cells form, each with their own DNA
What happens in Cytokenesis in cells with a cell wall? (plant cells) A cell plate forms in the middle of the cell The cell splits into 2 and the plate is replaced by a cell wall, separating the 2 new cells
What is a cell plate? contains material for the new cell walls and membranes
Who was Gregor Mendel? What did he discover? An Autralian monk who performed pea plant experiments at a monastery. Discovered the principles of heredity.
What is a characteristic? Give an example. a feature that has different forms in a population ex. Hair color
What is a trait? Give an example the different forms of a characteristic ex. brown hair
What are dominant traits? the trait seen in the first generation when parents that have different traits reproduce
What are recessive traits? the trait not seen in the first generation but appears in the second when parents that have different traits reproduce
What is heredity? passing of traits from parents to offspring
What is self-pollination? when pollen from the anther of a flower fertilizes the ovule of the same flower
What is cross-pollination? pollen from the anther of one plant fertilizes the ovule of a flower on a different plant
How is pollen transferred in cross-pollination? Carried by insects Carried by wind
What is a true breeding plant? A plant whose offspring will have all the same traits when it self pollinates
Why was it important that Mendel's plants could both self-pollinate and cross-pollinate Because if they self pollinate they are true-breeding, and Mendel could be sure of the traits that their offspring would have Cross pollination was important because he cross pollinated the pea plants to test heredity
What is a hybrid? the offspring of two plants from different species
What are genes? Give an example physical part in the chromosome that determines the instructions for an inherited trait ex. Bb
What is an allele? Give an example. different forms of a gene, the physical part of the chromosome that decides a trait ex. B
What is a Genotype? Give an example. the instructions based on the genes for a trait Ex. Bb
What is a Phenotype? the physical appearance of the trait of the organism based on the genotype
What is Incomplete dominance? when traits don’t blend together, but each allele has its own degree of influence
What influences traits besides genes? Give an example. The environment. ex. Genes may include tall, but healthy diet is required to reach full potential height
How did Mendel do his experiment? 1. He took removed the anthers of a pea plant so it could not self pollinate 2. He took pollen from another plant and fertilized it 3. Then he observed the offspring it produced
What did Mendel find from his experiments? For all of the traits, there was a dominant allele and a recessive allele. The dominant one showed up in the first generation of offspring the recessive allele showed up in the second generation
What was the ratio of dominant to recessive alleles in the second generation? 3:1
What is a homozygous genotype? An organism whose trait has both recessive alleles or both dominant
Cells need to produce new cells in order to... replace cells that have died
Created by: mhaq.16