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Incretin-Mimetic Agent Mimics actions of incretins *reduces glucose concentrations in the liver *Increases serum insulin *delays gastric emptying *decreases appetite Use: Type II adjunct S/E: N,V,D, Hypoglycemia
Amylinomimetic Agent Reduces postprandial by: *suppressing glucagon secretion and output *suppressing appetite S/E: GI, Hypoglycemia Use: Type I
Regular (Natural) Humulin R, Novolin R Only one that can be given IV 30-60 minutes before meals Onset- 30 minutes Peak- 2 1/2 - 5 hours Duration- 5-10 Hours
Long Acting glargine (Lantus) PM administration 24 hour basal source Do not mix or dilute Onset- 1 hour Peak------ Duration- 24 hours
Intermediate NPH insulin- regular mixed with protamine Humulin N, Novolin N Onset-1-2 hours Peak- 4-10 hours Duration- 24 hours
Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors Delays absorption of dietary carbs by inhibiting a breakdown enzyme in the intestine EG. acarbose (Precose) S/E: GI, Hypoglycemia will enhance it, hepatotoxicity
TZDs Increases ability of target cells to respond to insulin S/E: GI, hypoglycemia, wt. gain, hepatotoxicty Actos: Bladder CA Avandia: Heart failure
Biguanides metformin (Glucophage)-decreases glucose production in the liver Use: Type II D/C 24-48 hours before test with radiopaque dyes S/E: Decreased bp and resp. distres Does not cause wght. gain or hypoglycemia
Meglitinides stimulates release of insulin from pancreas must eat within 30 minutes of taking S/E: Hypoglycemia Eg: Repaglinide ( Prandin)
Antihypoglycemic Agents Eg. Glucagon Moa: Hormone from alpha cells of pancreas, breaks down glycogen to glucose Use: Treat hypoglycemia S/E: N,V
Thyroid Replacement Hormones Moa: T3 and T4 hormones Use: hypothyroidism life long treatment S/E: Hyperthyroidism Eg: Levothyroxine (Synthroid) DOC
Antithyroid Drugs eg: Iodine-131 (Radioactive Iodine) Moa: Suppression of thyroid synthesis Use: Hyperthyroidism ( Graves Disease)
Type I Diabetes Destruction of beta cells, eventually no insulin production
Type II Diabetes usually begins in middle ages- goes along w/ obesity, insulin resistance.
Created by: mdk92684