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N201: Test III V

Vocabulary

QuestionAnswer
Without tone; denervated muscle that atrophies atonic
shrinkagelike decrease in the size of a muscle atrophy
fluid-filled sac found in connective tissue, usually in the area of joints bursae
cartilaginous/fibrous tissue at fracture site callus
latticelike bone structure; trabecular bone cancellous bone
tough, elastic, avascular tissue at ends of bone cartilage
rhythmic contraction of muscles clonus
abnormal shortening of muscle or joint, or both; fibrosis contracture
compact bone cortical bone
grating or crackling sound or sensation; may occur with movement of ends of a broken bone or irregular joint surface crepitus
shaft of long bone diaphysis
excess fluid in joint effusion
a thin, vascular membrane covering the marrow cavity of long bones and the spaces in cancellous bone endosteum
end of long bone epiphysis
fibrous tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscles (epimysium) fascia
involuntary twitch of muscle fibers fasciculation
limp, without muscle tone flaccid
enlargement; increase in size of muscle hypertrophy
muscle tension increased, length unchanged, no joint motion (push) isometric contraction
muscle tension unchanged, muscle shortened, joint moved (flexion) isotonic contraction
area where bone ends meet; provides for motion and flexibility joint
fibrous tissue that encloses bone ends and other joint surfaces joint capsule
increase in the convex curvature of the spine kyphosis
mature compact bone structures that form concentric rings of bone matrix; lamellar bone lamellae
fibrous band connecting bones ligament
increase in lumbar curvature of the spine lordosis
process in which minerals (Ca+) are deposited in bone matrix ossification
bone-forming cell osteoblast
bone resorption cell osteoclast
mature bone cell osteocyte
new bone formation osteogenesis
microscopic functional bone unit osteon
abnormal sensation (eg, burning, tingling, numbness) parasthesia
fibrous connective tissue covering bone periosteum
process that ensures bone maintenance through simultaneous bone resorption and formation remodeling
removal/destruction of tissue, such as bone resorption
lateral curving of the spine scoliosis
having greater than normal muscle tone spastic
membrane in joint that secretes lubricating fluid synovium
cord of fibrous tissue connecting muscle to bone tendon
normal tension (resistance to stretch) in resting muscle tone (tonus)
latticelike bone structure; cancellous bone trabeculae
diagnostic evaluation for: tumors ligament or tendon damage computed tomography
diagnostic evaluation for: magnetic resonance imaging
a dye is inserted into the joint and ROM is performed. If tear is present, contrast agent leaks out of joint and is evident on x-rays image anthrography
most common bone densiometry scan DEXA scan
performed in OR, large needle inserted to joint, distended with saline, camera introdued to visualize joint arthroscopy
used to estimate bone mineral density: the only way to diagnose osteoporosis bone densitometry
detects metastatic and primary bone tumors, osteomyelitis, some fractures, and aseptic necrosis. A radioisotope is injected in IV and uptake of die is measured. bone scan
arthrocentesis
electromyography
biopsy
movement away from the center of the median line of the body abduction
movement toward the center or median line of the body adduction
death of tissue due to insufficient blood supply avascular necrosis
externally applied device to support the body or a body part, control movement, and prevent injury brace
rigid external immobilizing device molded to contours of body part cast
psychological (claustrophobic reaction) or physiologic (superior mesenteric artery syndrome) responses to confinement in body cast cast syndrome
a device that promotes ROM, circulation, and healing continuous passive motion device
soft tissue swelling due to fluid accumulation edema
external metal frame attached to bone fragments to stabilize them external fixator
a break in the continuity of the bone fracture
misplaced formation of bone heterotopic ossification
neurologic (motor and sensory components) and circulatory functioning of a body part neurovascular status
open surgical procedure to repair and stabilize a fracture open reduction with internal fixation
infection of the bone osteomyelitis
surgical cutting of the bone osteotomy
bandage used to support an arm sling
device designed specifically to support and immobilize a body part in a desired position splint
application of a pulling force to a part of the body traction
overhead assistance device to promote patient mobility in bed trapeze
inflammation of a fluid-filled sac in a joint bursitis
abnormal shortening of muscle or fibrosis of joint structures contracture
new bone growth areound a sequestrum involucrum
disease of a nerve root radiculopathy
sciatic nerve pain; pain travels down back of thigh into foot sciatica
dead bone in abscess cavity sequesrtum
inflammation of muscle tendons tendinitis
tissue harvested from a donor for use in another person allograft
removal of a body part, usually a limb or part of a limb amputation
surgical scope injected into the joint to examine or repair arthroscope
death of tissue secondary to a decrease or lack of perfusion avascular necrosis
blunt force injury to soft tissue contusion
a grating sound or sensation by rubbing bony fragments together crepitus
surgical removal of contaminated and devitalized tissues and foreign material debridement
prolongation of expected healing time for a fracture delayed union
amputation through a joint disarticulation
complete separation of joint surfaces dislocation
a break in the continuity of a bone fracture
restoration of fracture fragments into anatomic alignment fracture reduction
healing of a fractured bone in a malaligned position malunion
failure of fractures bones to heal together nonunion
pain perceived in an amputated section phantom limb pain
acronym for rest, ice, compression, elevation RICE
an injury to ligaments and muscles and other soft tissues at a joint sprain
a musculotendinous stress injury strain
partial separation of joint surfaces subluxation
involuntary flapping movements of the hands associated with metabolic liver dysfunction asterixis
use of balloons placed within the esophagus and proximal portion of the stomach and inflated to compress bleeding vessels (esophageal and gastric vessels) balloon tamponade
hepatic vein thrombosis resulting in non-cirrhotic portal hypertension Budd-Chiari syndrome
a chronic liver disease characterized by fibrotic changes and the formation of dense connective tissue within the liver, subsequent degenerative changes, and loss of functioning cells cirrhosis
inability to draw figures in two or three dimensions constructional apraxia
sweet, slightly fecal odor to the breath, presumed to be of intestinal origin; prevalent with the extensive collateral portal circulation in chronic liver disease fetor hepaticus
sudden, severe onset of acute liver failure that occurs within eight weeks after the first symptoms of jaundice fulminant hepatic failure
CNS dysfunction resulting from liver disease; frequently associated with elevated ammonia levels that produce changes in mental status, altered level of consciousness, and coma hepatic encephalopathy
grafting of a donor liver into the normal anatomic location, with the removal of the diseased native liver orthotopic liver transplantation
elevated pressure in the portal circulation resulting from obstruction of venous flow into and through the liver portal hypertension
the injection of substances into or around esophagogastric varices to cause constriction, thickening, and hardening of the vessel and thus to stop bleeding sclerotherapy
procedure that involves the endoscopic placement of a rubber band-like device over esophageal varices ti ligate the area and stop bleeding variceal banding
transplantation of organs from one species to another xenograft
when bilirubin concentration in the blood is abnormally elevated, all the body tissues, including the sclerae and the skin, become tinged yellow or greenish-yellow jaundice
increased destruction of RBCs, increased unconjugated bilirubin in plasma, liver functions properly but cannot handle increased amts of bilirubin hemolytic jaundice
inability of damaged liver cells to clear normal amts of bilirubin from the blood; increased unconjugated bilirubin hepatocellular jaundice
extrahepatic or intrahepatic obstruction that prevents bile from entering the intestine, causing it to back up into the liver and be reabsorbed into the blood. Increased urobilirubin and conjugated bilirubin obstructive jaundice
increased serum bilirubin levels, resulting from any several inherited disorders, can also cause jaundice. (Gilbert's, Dubin-Johnson, & Rotor's syndromes) hereditary hyperbilirubinemia
The biggest risk for damaged organs is a fractured pelvis
the reservoir for immature blood cells bands
a fracture is significant for loss of blood and hematomia because bones are blood rich
immovable joints synarthrosis
joints that allow limited movement amphiarthrosis
freely movable joints dirthrosis
dislocation is a concern with _______ joints ball and socket
arthritis, overuse, hyperextension and tendonitis are concerns with _____ joints hinge
the base of the thumb is a _______ joint saddle
a joint that turns (turning or a doorknob) pivot
muscles are encased in a fibrous tissue called fascia
________ of muscle cause movement contraction
muscles <-(________)-> bones tendons
development of new blood supply - new blood vessels angiogenesis
process of bone formation osteogenesis
the process of formation of the bone matrix and deposition of minerals ossification
diagnostic evaluation for: bone deformities joint changes x-ray
The only way to diagnose osteoporosis is a _____ scan DEXA
A cast is used for: External immobilization
A ______ reduces a fracture, corrects a deformity, applies uniform pressure to underlying soft tissue, and supports and stabilizes weakened joints. cast
a viral infection causing inflammation and necrosis or the liver cells hepatitis
ROM: Pulling down toward midline of body (Arms from out to in) Adduction
Mineralized bone matrices Lamellae
The marrow cavity lining of hollow bone Endosteum
Latticelike bone structure Trabecula
Spongy, latticelike bone structure Cancellous Bone
A microscopic functional bone unit Osteon
Most prevalent M/S disease in the world is Osteoporosis
Pre-cursor to Osteoporosis is Osteopenia
______ osteoporosis occurs after menopause Primary
______ osteo from conditions that affect the bone metabolism Secondary
Metabolic bone disease characterized by inadequate mineralization of the bone, weakness of skeleton Osteomalasia
Infection of the bone, results in inflammation and necrosis Osteomyelitis
Infection of the joints Septic Arthritis
Created by: lost little girl