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AJS101 midterm

Intro to Criminal Justice

Criminology p.25 Scientific study of causes & prevention of crime; and, rehabilitation & punishment of offenders.
Terry v Ohio (1968) p 228, 233 * stop & frisk/request personal id * search on reasonable suspicion
Vigilantism p 153 (204, 378) * act of taking the law into one's own hands.
Plain View Seizure p 227, 229 (230) * objects falling in plain view of officer who has right to be in the position to have that view are subject to seizure & may be introduced into evidence. * officer had probable cause evidence associated w/ criminal activity.
Procedural Law p 20-1, *READ p 120 * type of evidence that may be submitted, credentials of who representing state/defendant, & what jury can hear.
Alibis p 683 statement/contention by individual charged w/ crime the he was so distant when crime committed, his participation in crime was impossible.
FBI p 159 (162-3) * Protect & defend US against terrorist & foreign intelligence threats. *Uphold & enforce US criminal laws * provide leadership & services to other agencies.
Techniques of Neutralization (Criminology theory) p 80, 99 * Offenders shed feelings of guilt & responsibility for behavior *denial of responsibility, injury, the victim; condemn the cops; appeal to higher loyalties. *social process type by Sykes & Matza
Psychological theory of crime p 89 * product of dysfunctional personality; defective mental processes.
Individual rights advocates p 693, 12 *one who seeks to protect personal freedoms w/in process of criminal justice. * balance rights of individual vs society
Categories of crimes p 120 1. Felony 2. Misdemeanor 3. Offenses 4. Treason & espionage 5. Inchoate offenses
Felony p 120 * serious crimes: murder, rape, aggravated assault, robbery, burglary, & arson *criminal offense punishable by death.
Misdemeanor p 121 * minor crime: petty theft (little value), simple assault (no injury, no intent), breaking & entering, disorderly conduct, disturbing peace, bad checks
Offenses (infraction) p 121 minor violations less serious than misdemeanor, eg, jaywalking, spitting on sidewalk, littering
Treason p 121 US citizen helps foreign government overthrow, make war against or seriously injure US
Espionage p 122 gathering, transmitting or losing infor related to national defense & becomes available to enemies of US * may be committed by non-US citizen
Inchoate Offense p 122 "incomplete or partial"; not been fully carried out; conspiracies, attempt to commit a crime
Actus Reus p 123 The Criminal Act; an act in violation of the law; a guilty act.
Mass murder p 45 killing of 4+ victims at one location within one event
Spree killing p 45 killings at 2+ locations with almost no time break between murders
Serial murder p 45 happens over time & involves killing of several victims in 3+ separate events
Stages of Criminal Justice System p 29, 18-22 AND Inside Cover of book 1. Investigation 2. Arrest 3. Booking 4. 1st appearance 5. defendant's preliminary hearing 6. return of indictment 7. arraignment 8. adjudication or trial 9. sentencing 10. corrections
Clearance rate p 44 proportion of reported crimes that have been solved
Tennessee v Garner (1985) p 281 use of deadly force to prevent escape of ALL felony suspects is constitutionally unreasonable.
Grass eater v Meat eater p 270 *Knapp Commission - 2 types of corrupt police officers. *Grass eating - common form, illegitimate activity occurs time to time (bribes or services). *Meat eater - serious corruption, actively seek illicit moneymaking opportunities.
Miranda Rights p 18 *Constitutional rights - remain silent; anything said used against you; right to lawyer; appointed lawyer if can't afford; right to stop answering; do you wish to talk; do you want lawyer.
Sir Robert Peele p 136, 152 *British Prime minister who's assistant, Edward Drummond, was assassinated in mistaken identity. * Formed 1st modern police force 1829, aka, new police, "bobbies"
Substantive law (vs procedural law) p 117 part of the law that defines crimes & specifies punishments.
Procedural law (vs Substantive law) p 117 part of the law that specifies the methods to be used in enforcing substantive law.
Motive p 124 a person's reason for committing a crime.
Hate crimes p 62-4 defendant's conduct motivated by hatred, bias or prejudice based on actual/perceived race, color, religion, nation origin, ethnicity, gender
Features of Crime p 123 1. Criminal act (Actus Reus) 2. Culpable mental state (mens rea) 3. concurrence of the two
Sutherland, Edwin 1939 p 64, 96-7, crime in suites (corporate offices) rivaled importance of street crime in its impact on society (white collar crime). * Published "Principles of Criminology" - theory of Differential Association (child raised in crime didn't know better); deviant behavio
Public Order Advocates p 12 interests of society take precident over individual rights *balance between public order v individual rights
Concurrent sentence p 21 sentences served at the same time
Consecutive sentences p 21 sentences served in sequence, one after the other
Waiving your rights p 249 suspect waives Miranda rights voluntarily through knowing and intelligent waiver; must first be advised of rights.
Grand juries p 19 grand jury determine whether sufficient evidence to bring to trial
Preliminary hearings p 19 to establish whether sufficient evidence exists to continue justice process. Judge will determine if probable cause of crime & that defendant committed it.
Civil suits p 118 relationships between parties; sue for payment of damages (vs criminal suit is for prison time).
Bill of Rights p 22-3 1st ten amendments to US Constitution; aka, Due Process. specifically, 5th, 6th & 14th amendments.
Individual Rights from page 23 Table 1-1 innocent until proven guilty, no unreasonable searches, no arrest w/out probable cause, no self-incrimination, no physical harm, attorney, trial by jury, know charges, speedy trial, due process, cross-examine, no cruel punishment, no excessive bail/fines.
4th Amendment p 219 No unreasonable searches & seizures. No arrest w/out probable cause.
5th Amendment p 219 No self-incrimination No double jeopardy Right to due process
6th Amendment p 291 Speedy trial Jury trial Know the charges Cross-examine witnesses Right to a lawyer Compel/force witnesses on one's behalf
8th Amendment p 219 Reasonable bail No excessive fines No cruel & unusual punishments
14th Amendment p 219 Applicability of constitutional rights to all citizens, regardless of state law or procedure
UCR and NIBRS p 35 Uniform Crime Reporting & National Incident-Based Reporting system run by FBI; publishes annual summary of incidence & rate of reported crimes in US.
Behavioral Conditioning p 89 * Psychological theory of crime. * Frequency of behavior can be increased/decreased through reward, punishment & associated stimuli, eg, Pavlov dogs
Victimology p 706 Scientific study of crime victims & victimization process; a subfield of criminology.
USA Patriot Act of 2001 p 257 result of 2001 terrorist activities; increased investigatory authority of police; longer jail terms for suspects arrested w/out warrant; sneak & peek search; tap phones, track Internet usage, crack down on money laundering, protect US borders.
Police Working Personality p 699 p 201-2 Aspects of traditional values & patterns of behavior by police who've socialized into police subculture (p 196).
Less-lethal weapons p 695 A weapon that is designed to disable, capture or immobilize--but not kill--a suspect.
Female victimization p 59-60 * Women victimized LESS than men in every category EXCEPT rape. * Women are more likely to be injured in a violent crime than are men. * Domestic violence largest cause of injury. *
Police Chiefs - chain of command p 186 Police chief is the top of the command chain. The order of authority within the department.
Private Police (vs Public Police) p 174 * aka, Private Protective Service * Work for corporate or private employers (vs government). * Secure private interests (vs enforce public laws) * Outnumber public officers 3:1 * Funded by private organization (vs taxpayers).
Pleasure Pain Principle internet; p 82 * Theory of criminology * Rational choice - individuals choose to commit crime when benefits outweigh the costs of disobeying law.
Proactive vs Reactive policing p 180+ ?? * Proactive = Crime prevention; anticipate crime & act to reduce/remove it. * Reactive = responding to incident calls & doing criminal investigations
Murder p 44 * Unlawful killing of one human by another, aka, homicide * Includes 1st & 2nd degree murder, manslaughter, involuntary manslaughte
Created by: yo2sls
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