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G&D Final

Final Exam Study Guide

External force and health culture; community; family; biosphere
Future goal for health care increasing one’s optimal level of wellness, Health Promotion
Role of nurse in health promotion collaborator
Benefits of exercise improved cardiac output
Examples of health restoration/tertiary care cane or hearing aid
Objective of health promotion achieve an optimum level of wellness
What can change one’s behavior internal and external forces
Internal forces body systems, mind, neurochemistry, heredity
External forces culture, community, family, biosphere
Goal in health restoration regain lost function and develop new, compensatory skills, possibly with the use of an assistive device; help clients attain the maximal level of health
Functions of culture gives groups of individuals a style of thinking, a way of organizing, and a guide for human interaction; influences diet, eating practices, how we raise our children, pain perception, and reactions to stress and death
Define folkways the customs within the culture that determine how we greet one another
Define race a group of people sharing certain physical characteristics including skin, color, hair texture, facial shape, and/or body shape or size
Define cultural awareness understanding of culture, race, and ethnicity of diverse minority groups; and learning the cultural values and beliefs of the client and how they cope with difficulties and solve problems
Define assimilation when the subgroups within the dominant culture over time take on the values, beliefs, moral code, and patterns of the dominant group as a way of adapting
Cultural practices of Arabs touch only with same gender, see illness as punishment for sin, strict adherence to diet and mealtimes, with periods of fasting during the holy month of Ramadan
How do you determine ethnic origin ask the client
Define culture refers to all of the learned patterns of behavior passed down through the generations and influences our thinking, decisions, and actions; (includes one’s customs)
Good discipline for 2 year old eliminate temptation; supervise; redirect; calmly say “no”; use time out
Define functional family one that fosters the growth and development of its members
Grief support offer self and support; avoid clichés; recognize that time is needed for healing; be nonjudgmental; suggest professional help
What holds a family together meeting each family member’s needs for love, belonging, and security; (personal fulfillment of the members)
Birth order ordinal position affects the child’s perception of and response to the world
Laissez faire type family offers its members complete freedom; children do not learn the rules that teach impulse control
What is a basic family function protection
Reproduction and family the means by which the family survives and passes its genes to succeeding generations
Advantages of extended family there may be sharing of roles and resources; elders can assist with childrearing
Define empty nest older children leave the home; parents now shift their focus from caring for the children to caring for each other once again
Define communication an interaction between two or more persons, an exchange of ideas, information, feelings, or emotions; it can be complex, dynamic, and ongoing
A professional experience can communicate pride and competence
What indicates a willingness to communicate open posture: sits relaxed, with hands and legs uncrossed, facing another individual
Define therapeutic communication purposeful and goal oriented; promotes trust and good rapport; is open until the goals are reached
Define genuineness being yourself; open and truthful; communicates caring
Define empathy shows that you understand a person’s feelings and view the world as they do; allows you to stay in control of the interaction and act with confidence
Communicate with hearing impaired it is best to speak slowly, face the person, and use sign language to emphasize the message
Define development the progressive acquisition of skills and the capacity to function; is qualitative and proceeds from the general to the specific
Pattern of growth and development orderly from simple to complex; one task must be accomplished before the next one
Define personality consists of the behavior patterns that distinguish one person from another-the individual’s style of behavior
Driving force behind human behavior personality
Another name for conscience superego
Foundation for healthy personality infancy and childhood are the critical periods for development and change
Define egocentric child a child with self-centered thoughts or actions
When is self actualization achieved when one’s full potential has been achieved
Two influences of growth and development heredity and environment
Inherited characteristics determined when fertilization of the ovum
Crying infants fretfully with fingers in mouth-hungry; fretfully, flexed legs, and pass flatus-colic; high-pitched, shrill cry-injured CNS
Define attachment emotional bonds between the mother and child
What indicates a hip dysplasia an extra gluteal fold in the lower extremities
Define meconium newborn’s first stool; is thick, green-black, tarry, and odorless
When do testes descend into the scrotum seventh month of fetal life
What causes jaundice destruction of excess RBC’s in newborn causing a release of high amounts of bilirubin
Define sutures bands of cartilage that separate the skull bones in the newborn
Normal umbilical cord has what one vein, two arteries
Normal growth for a 2 year old 3 inches and 3 to 6 pounds per year; slow and steady
Why are children prone to accidents because of their natural curiosity and explorative behavior
Why is the toddler potbellied large belly and exaggerated lumbar curve (lordosis); child’s extremities grow faster than the trunk
Define greenstick fracture the bone is angulated beyond the limits of normal bending, the bones are still soft and pliable so greenstick fracture occurs
When is hand dominance determined by 15 months
When should a child be bladder trained when the child has reached a certain degree of maturity in the muscles including sphincter control and maturation of the sensory centers of the brain
Discipline in toddler years use a simple “no” followed by diversion, be constant and reinforce limitations
Define object permanence the understanding that things will not disappear even if they cannot be seen
Define symbolic play the emergence of make-believe and pretense
Normal growth of 18 month old slow and steady
Growth pattern of preschool children slow and steady; gain 5 to 7 pounds and grow 2 ½ to 3 inches; the rate of growth for the extremities is faster than for the trunk
Why are preschool children slender in appearance loss of some subcutaneous or adipose tissue
Define associative play requires that children be able to understand limited rules; they begin to share and take turns
Outcome of thumb sucking prolonged sucking may cause malalignment of the teeth
Age can identify color and depth fully established by age 5
5 year old walking down steps use alternating feet while descending stairs
Fears of preschool child the dark, mutilation, abandonment
School age and respiratory infection increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections due to exposure to a greater number of microorganisms at school
10 year old thinking pattern concrete operational thought; seriation; can understand time, space and dimension
Play of school age child use of cooperation and compromise; team play usually is with groups of the same sex and may be competitive in nature
Define seriation being able to place items according to size
Define reciprocity concern for others
Growth and development of school age begins slow and steady and ends with a growth spurt just at the time of puberty; grow 2 to 3 inches; 4.5 to 6.5 pounds per year
Outcome of sleep deprivation in school age academic performances and social relationships will suffer
School age fine motor development girls perfect their fine motor skills before boys perfect theirs
In girls puberty ends with the onset of menses
Define adolescent period refers to a transitional period that begins with sexual maturity and ends with cessation of growth and the movement toward emotional maturity; adolescence is from Latin and means “to grow and mature”
Define bulimia eating disorder characterized by a series of eating binges followed by periods of purging or self-induced vomiting
Signs of depression crying spells; insomnia; eating disorders; isolation; acting out; school phobias; underachievement, substance abuse; hopelessness; somatic complaints; loss of interest in appearance; giving away possessions
Changes in body during puberty rapid physical growth; changes in body proportions; development of primary sex characteristics; development of secondary sex characteristics
What are the secondary sex characteristics characteristics that play no direct role in reproduction
What causes deepening of the voice in boys the larynx and the vocal cords increase in size
Early adulthood is a period of choosing and establishing careers, fulfilling sexual needs, establishing home and families, expanding social circles, and developing maturity
Define presbyopia the decreased ability to see objects clearly at close distance, occurs with advancing age
Changes in bone in early adulthood although bone growth stops, bone cells are replaced at the site of any injury; peak bone mass is attained by age 35
Cardiovascular changes in early adulthood maximum cardiac output is reached between ages 20 to 30; the heart muscles thicken with fat deposits in the blood vessels producing a decreased blood flow; heart and vessels become less elastic with advancing age
Hearing loss in early adult after age 20 there is a gradual hearing loss, particularly for high-frequency tones
Classes of pap smears (1)the absence of abnormal cells; (2)atypical but nonmalignant cells; (3)abnormal cells; (4)cells that are possibly but not definitively malignant; (5)conclusive for cancer
When to perform self breast exams once a month about 1 week after the end of the menstrual period
Most common dental problem in young adult eruption of wisdom teeth; gingivitis
Define reaction time the speed at which a person responds to a stimulus
Define vital capacity the ability of the lungs to move air in and out
When does menopause begin between 45 and 55 years of age
Bones and middle age Bones lose mass as a result of demineralization. This results in more porous, brittle bones, producing osteoporosis
What causes a decrease in peripheral vision the optic lens becomes thicker and more opaque
What is today’s grandparent like youthful in appearance and outlook; some are still actively working or fulfilling lifelong dreams
What causes wrinkles the cells in the dermis become less elastic
What causes an increase in blood pressure in middle age heart disease
What happens to weight in middle years it becomes redistributed
Self absorption in middle years failure to achieve generativity results in self-absorption and stagnation; may lead to depression and acting-out behavior
Define young old 65-74 years old
What can predict one’s life expectancy the ages of one’s biological parents
Safety in older adult is a concern why decreased auditory and visual acuity, gait changes, and neurological disorders increase an older person’s risk of falling; normal circulatory and skin changes make their skin more prone to injury
Depression in older adult multiple losses, disease, and medication may lead to depression in the older age group; symptoms include hopelessness and profound sadness
Why does the incidence of choking increase in older people diminished gag reflex
Tooth loss in the geriatric not a consequence of the aging process but a result of poor care leading to disease
Memory in the older adult shows slight changes; problems in memory are from disease
Hearing loss in older adult presbycusis; loss of high frequency sounds
When is there a shift in roles of older adult married couples physical or emotional illness; retirement; death of a spouse; divorce
Define ageism discrimination against older persons
Created by: laotracuata