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Adre/Cholinergic PCC

Pharmacology Adrenergic/Cholinergic

Effects of parasympathomimetics on specific organs Constricts pupils, bronchioles, and bladder. Increases secretions, peristalsis, and salivation. decreases heart rate. Dilates blood vessels.
Specific effects of Cholinergic Agonists for all organs Stimulate bladder and GI tone, constrict pupils, increase neuromuscular transmission, decreased heart rate and blood pressure, increased salivary, GI, and bronchial glandular secretions.
Cholinergic Agonist: Bethanecol-Urecholine(administration) Acts on the muscarinic receptor and is used primarily to increase urination (increase urine output). It is poorly absorbed by the GI tract. Client voids 30-90 min after administration. Should be taken on an empty stomach. SubQ or PO.
Cholinergic Agonist: Bethanecol-Urecholine (Side effects) hypotension, bradycardia, blurred vision, excessive salivation, increased gastric acid secretion, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, bronchoconstriction, cardiac dysrhythmias, nausea, vomitting, sweating, flushing, frequent urination, miosis.
Cholinergic Agonist: Bethanecol-Urecholine (adverse effects) orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, muscle weakness, acute asthmatic attack, heart block, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest
Cholinergic Agonist: Bethanecol-Urecholine (Contraindications/Interactions) GI/GU obstruction, bradycardia, hypotension, COPD, asthma, peptic ulcer, parkinsonism, antidysrhythmics
Anticholinergics: Atropine (uses) preoperative to reduce salivation, increase heart rate, dilate pupils, as an antispasmodic drug to treat peptic ulcers
Patient teaching with anticholinergics Avoid hot temps,physical exertion,don't use in pts w/ glaucoma,drowsiness is common,avoid etoh,smoking,caffeine,aspirin,use sunglasses for photophobia,dry mouth,<urination,constipation,>fluids,urinate before taking, >oral hygeine, eyedrops=moisten, >fiber
Contraindications with anticholinergics narrow-angle glaucoma, obstructive GI disorders, paralytic ileus, ulcerative colitis, tachycardia, BPH, myasthenia gravis, myocardial ischemia, Renal/hepatic disorders, COPD, heart failure
Adrenergic Agonists/Antagonists: Epinephrine (administration) SubQ, IV, topical, inhalation No PO. Used in emergency to treat anaphylaxis.
Adrenergic Agonists/Antagonists: Epinephrine (Pharmacodynamics) SubQ onset 3-5 min, peak 20 min, duration 1-4 hrs., IV onset immediate, peak 2-5 min, duration 5-10 min, inhal onset 1 min, peak 3-5 min, duration 1-3 hours. increase CO, vasoconstriction, BP, HR, bronchodilation, renal vasoconstriction, decreasing output
Adrenergic Agonists/Antagonists: Epinephrine (Indications) to treat allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, asthma, bronchospasm, severe hypotension, cardiac arrest
Adrenergic Agonists/Antagonists: Epinephrine (nursing interventions) Monitor BP,P,UO.Report tachycardia,palpitations,tremors,dizziness, HTN.Monitor IV infiltration.Antidote:phentolamine mesylate (Regitine)Avoid cold medicines & diet pills if HTN,DM,CAD,or dysrhythmic,when breastfeeding,continuous use of nasal sprays.
Adrenergic Agonists/Antagonists: Alpha adrenergic blocker expected response Vasodilation, dec. BP, reflex tachycardia, miosis, suppresses ejaculation, reduces smooth muscle contraction in bladder neck and prostate gland.
Adrenergic Agonists/Antagonists: Nonselective beta adrenergic blocker expected response decreases HR, reduces force of contractions, constricts bronchioles, contracts uterus, inhibits glycogenolysis (decrease BS)
Adrenergic Agonists/Antagonists: General sympathetic responses, specific effects for all organs dilate pupils, bronchioles,increase HR, constrict blood vessels, relax GI, bladder, and uterus
Adrenergic Agonists/Antagonists:Patient teaching for adrenergic beta blockers decrease HR & BP.Should be used with extreme caution with COPD or asthma.Side effects:bradycardia,hypotension,HA,dizziness, cold extremities, hypoglycemia,bronchospasm,dysrhythmias,flushing,weakness,impotence,dec. libido,depression,pulmonary edema
Adrenergic agonists/Antagonists: Lopressor – side effects and adverse reactions fatigue, weakness, dizziness, n/v, diarrhea, mental changes, nasal stuffiness, impotence, decreased libido, depression, bradycardia, thrombocytopenia, complete heart block, bronchospasm, agranulocytosis
Adrenergic agonists/Antagonists: Adrenergic Receptor functions Alpha1: the arterioles & venules contrict,increasing peripheral resistance & blood return to the heart. Alpha2: increases norepinephrine resulting in vasodilation and decrease BP.Beta1: increases myocardial contractility and HR. Beta2:
Know different names for same category: anticholinergics cholinergic or muscarinic antagonists, antiparasympathetic agents, antimuscarinic agents, antispasmodics
Know different names for same category: adrenergic agonists adrenergics, sympathomimetics, adrenomimetics
Know different names for same category: Adrenergic Blockers adrenergic antagonists, sympatholytics
Know different names for same category: Cholinergic agonists parasympathomimetics, cholinomimetics, cholinergic stimulants, cholinergic agonists
Cholinergic agonists: Cholinergic overdose antidote IV atropine sulfate (0.6-1.2 mg) early signs of overdose include flushing, salivation, sweating, nausea, and abd. cramps
Adrenergic Agents: Drug selectivity – selective and nonselective Selective: blocks alpha1/beta1 Nonselective: blocks alpha1 and alpha2/beta1 and beta2
Created by: 543102022