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Language Development

infinite generativity ability to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences using a finite set of words and rules
phonology how sounds are used and combined
phoneme the smallest unit of sound
morphology the rules for combining morphemes
morphemes the smallest units of meanings
syntax the ways words are arranged to form acceptable phrases and sentences
semantics the meanings of words and sentences
pragmatics the appropriate use of language in context
telegraphic speech the use of short and precise words without grammatical markers
whole language approach reading should be whole and meaningful
basic skills and phonics approach reading should involve simplified materials
dialect variety of language distinguished by vocabulary, grammar, or pronunciation
receptive vocabulary words the child understands
spoken vocabulary words the child uses
fast mapping a process that helps to explain how young children learn the connection between a word and its referent so quickly
subtractive bilingualism when immigrant children go from being monolingual in their home language to bilingual in that language and in English, only to end up monolingual speakers of English
bilingual education teaching an academic subject to immigrant children in their native language while slowly teaching English
Broca's area an area of the brain's left frontal lobe that is involved in producing words
Wernicke's area an area of the brain's left hemisphere that is involved in language comprehension
aphasia a loss or impairment of language processing resulting from damage to Broca's area or Wernicke's area
damage to Broca's area difficulty producing words correctly
damage to Wernicke's area poor comprehension and fluent yet incomprehensible speech
language acquisition device (LAD) Chomsky's term that describes a biological endowment that enables the child to detect certain features and rules of language, including phonology, syntax, and semantics
child-directed speech language spoken in a higher pitch than normal, with simple words and sentences
recasting rephrasing a statement that a child has said, perhaps turning it into a question, or restating a child's immature utterance in the form of a fully grammatical sentence
expanding restating, in a linguistically sophisticated form, what a child has said
labeling identifying the names of objects
what do all human languages have? infinite generativity and organizational rules
what sound sequence do babies go through in the first year? crying, cooing, and babbling
overextension when children apply a word to objects that are inappropriate for the word's meaning
underextension when children apply a word too narrowly
what is an example of telegraphic speech? two-word utterances
what is Berko's card experiment? kids were shown words that don't exist but they were able to apply morphological rules
the alphabetic principle that the letters of the alphabet represent sounds of the language
what is the behavioral view of language? that language is a learned skill, but this is not a good explanation
how can you enhance a child's acquisition of language? use child directed speech, recasting, expanding, and labeling
Created by: katieliptrap
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