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Unit 4: Genetics

DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, molecule that stores genetic information in all organisms
RNA nucleic acid molecule that allows for the transmission of genetic information and protein synthesis
Codon sequence of three nucleotides that codes for one amino acid
Zygote cell that forms when a male gamete (sex cell) fertilizes a female gamete (sex cell)
Homozygous characteristic of having two of the same alleles at the same locus of sister chromatids
Transcription process of copying a nucleotide sequence of DNA to form a complementary strand of mRNA
Double Helix structure of DNA in which two strands wind around one another like a twisted laddder
mRNA form of RNA that carries genetic information from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it serves as a template for protein synthesis
tRNA form of RNA that brings amino acids to ribosomes during protein synthesis
Genetics study of the heredity patterns of organisms
Heterozygous characteristic of having two different alleles at the same locus of sister chromatids
Amino Acid molecule that makes up proteins; composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur.
Haploid cell that has only one copy of each chromosome
Nucleotide monomer that forms DNA and has a phosphate group, a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base
Translation process by which mRNA is decoded and a protein is produced
Meiosis form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into non-identical haploid cells; important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction
Heredity is the passing of traits to offspring (from its parent or ancestors)
Genotype collection of all of an organism’s genetic information that codes for traits
Recessive allele that is not expressed unless two copies are present in an organisms genotype (ex: gg is recessive, GG is dominant, Gg is heterozygous)
Complementary go together; are matched together. DNA and RNA bases are complementary: A & T and C & G in DNA, A & U and C & G in RNA.
Somatic Cell cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes
Gene specific region of DNA that codes for a particular protein
Phenotype collection of all of an organism’s physical characteristics
Clone genetically identical copy of a single gene or an entire organism
Base compound that accepts a proton (H+) when dissolved in a solution. Also one of the components of a nucleotide, the monomer that makes-up DNA
Ribosome organelle that links amino acids together to form proteins
Diploid cell that has two copies of each chromosome, one from an egg and one from a sperm
Allelle any of the alternative forms of a gene that occurs at a specific place on a chromosome
Punnett Square model for predicting all possible genotypes resulting from a cross or mating
Replication process by which DNA is copied
Protein polymer composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds; folds into a particular structure depending on bonds between amino acids
Gamete sex cell; an egg or a sperm
Dominant allele that is expressed when two different alleles are present in an organism’s genotype (ex: gg is recessive, GG is dominant, Gg is heterozygous)
Monohybrid Cross cross or mating between organisms that involves only one pair of contrasting traits
Pedigree chart of the phenotypes and genotypes in a family that is used to determine whether an individual is a carrier of a recessive allele
Codominance heterozygous genotype that equally expresses the traits from both alleles (e.g. sickle cell anemia)
Sex Chromosomes chromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics
Carrier organism whose genome contains a gene for a certain trait or disease that is not expressed in the organism’s phenotype
Polygenic Inheritance trait that is produced by two or more genes (e.g. eye color, hair color, etc)
Sex-Linked Inheritance the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the chromosomal sex of the individual (e.g. hemophilia, colorblindness, muscular dystrophy)
Autosomes chromosomes that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
Incomplete Dominance heterozygous phenotype that is a blend of the two homozygous phenotypes (e.g. rose color)
Transgenic Organism organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species.
Karyotype image of all of the chromosomes in a cell
Multiple Alleles trait in which there are more than two alleles to choose from to make a gene (e.g. blood type)
Nondisjunction failure of chromosome pairs to separate properly during meiosis
Created by: BEastBio
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