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PEDs Final M-R-E NTD

Meningitis-Reyes'-Encephalitis and Neural tube defects

QuestionAnswer
What is opisthotonic? A child has an exaggerated arching of the back. Common in black females.
What is the treatment for aseptic meningitis? Symptomatic: Tylenol, hydration, positioning for comfort, antimicrobial agents, and isolation.
What are complications of meningitis? **See pages 1538 (new ed); pg 1645 (old ed)** SIADH (Hormone disorder), HEARING LOSS, subdural effusions, seizures, cerebral edema and herniation, hydrocepahlus, and meninigococcal sepsis or meningococcemia. **IRRITABILITY, DIPLOPIA
What complication can occur after the repair of a neural tube defect? Meningitis
What is the treatment for Reye's syndrome? Monitor intake and output to prevent dehydration and cerebral edema; do not treat any flu-like symptoms without checking for hidden salicylates.
What is the treatment for encephalitis? Primarily supportive and includes conscientious nursing care, control of cerebral manifestations/ disorders, adequate nutrition and hydration.
What should one with a neural tube defect avoid? Bananas and maintain a latex-free environment (latex allergy)
What is ancephaly? Most serious neural tube defect; a congential malformation where both cerebral hemispheres are absent. Flat brain, no medulla. RN needs to help support parent because the child has a very short life expectancy from days to weeks.
What is Spina bifida occulta? A defect that is not visible externally; occurs most commonly in the lumbosacral area
What is Spina bifida cystica? A visible defect with a sac-like protrusion. Different forms: meningocele and myelomeningocele.
What is Brudzinski? An indication of meningitis in which passive flexion of the leg on one side causes a similar movement in the opposite leg; or passive flexion of the neck causes flexion of the legs
What is Kernig's? The inability to straighten the leg when the hip is flexed at a 90 degree angle the hamstring muscles become very stiff.
What are signs of ICP in infants? Tense, BULGING FONTANELS, separated cranial sutures, irritability, HIGH-PITCHED CRYING, increased front occipital circumference, distended scalp veins, poor feeding, crying when disturbed, and SUN-SETTING SIGN.
What are signs of ICP in young children? Headache, nausea, forceful vomiting, diplopia (double vision), blurred vision, and seizures
What is the role of antibiotics with Meningitis? FIGHT OFF BACTERIAL INFECTION THEY ALREADY HAVE and prevent further infections
How long will a patient with meningitis be in isolation? If they have unknown baterial/viral meningitis they are ISOLATED FOR 24 HRS- 10 days
When are anibiotics started for meninigitis? If bacterial meningitis is suspected, antibiotics are started immediately!
Created by: Keller_KI