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Nutrition - E2 - P1

Nutrition - Exam 2 - Part 1 - Carbohydrates

What are the 2 simple carbohydrates? Monosaccharides, Disaccharides
What are complex carbohydrates also known as? Polysaccharides
What are the 3 complex carbohydrates (or polysaccharides)? glycogen, starches, fiber
What are the 3 monosaccharides? glucose, fructose, galactose
What monosaccharide is commonly known as blood sugar? glucose
What monosaccharide is an essential energy source for the body? glucose
What monosaccharide is the sweetest of all sugars? fructose
What monosaccharide occurs in fruits and honey? fructose
What monosaccharide rarely occurs as a single sugar? galactose
Glucose, fructose and galactose all have what molecular formula? C6H12O6
______ is the linking of two monosaccharides together which creates h2o. condensation
______ is the splitting of molecules using water. hydrolysis
glucose + glucose = _________ maltose
glucose + fructose = __________ sucrose
glucose + galactose = __________ lactose
What are 3 disaccharides? maltose, sucrose, lactose
What disaccharide is a minor constituent of barley? maltose
What disaccharide gives natural sweetness to fruits, veggies and grains and is commonly known as table sugar? sucrose
What disaccharide is milk sugar? lactose
What is the storage form of glucose in the body? glycogen
What is the storage form of glucose in plants? starches
What is the structural parts of plants found in veggies, fruits, grains, legumes? fiber
In what type of complex carbohydrates can bonds not be broken and is not digestible by human enzymes? fibers
Whole legumes, raw potatoes, and unripe bananas have fibers known as what? resistant starches
Glycogen is made and stored in the ______ and ______. liver, muscles
______ fibers dissolve in water. soluble
______ fibers are viscous (form gels). soluble
______ fibers are fermentable (digested by bacteria in the colon) soluble
_______ fibers are found in legumes and fruits and lower cholesterol and blood glucose. soluble
______ fibers do not dissolve in water. insoluble
______ fibers are nonviscous (do not form gel) insoluble
______ fibers are found in grains and veggies, promote satiety, and promote bowel movements and prevent constipation. insoluble
The ultimate goal of digestion and absorption of sugars and starches is to break them into molecules of ______. glucose
______ is the main energy source for the brain. glucose
In the mouth, ______ hydrolyzes starch to shorter polysaccharides and maltose. salivary amylase
______ delay gastric emptying. fibers
The primary site of carbohydrate, fat, and protein digestion is the ________. small intestine
_______ breaks down polysaccharides into shorter glucose chains and disaccharides. pancreatic amylase
How long can our glycogen stores last? 24 hours
The making of glucose from a new source (Protein) which breaks down our own lean muscle mass is known as _________. making glucose from a new source (Protein) Break down our own lean muscle mass. Gluconeogenesis
Supplying your body with adequate carbs to prevent gluconeogenesis is known as the _________. Protein-sparing action of carbohydrates
Making ketone bodies from fat fragments as an alternative fuel to glucose is known as ________. ketosis
After we meet our energy needs and fill our glycogen stores, extra glucose is put back together and stored as _______. fat
Low blood sugar/glucose accompanied by dizziness, sweating and shaking is known as _________. Hypoglycemia
High blood sugar/glucose accompanied by excessive urination, thirst, hunger is known as ________. hyperglycemia
Normal blood glucose level is _______. 70-110 mg/dL
_______ transports glucose from the bloodstream into the cells. insulin
_______ releases glucose from the liver in response to low blood sugar. glucagon
“fight or flight” hormone epinephrine
The _______ produces insulin and glucagon. pancreas
What are the health effects of high sugar diets? nutrient deficiencies, dental carries
% of kcals that should come from carbohydrates 45-65%
Created by: K1N1V