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Criminology

Midterm quizzes 1--11

QuestionAnswer
Crime facilitation and precipitation are seen in which typology of crim? Victim-based
Which source of data is likely to give a victim-based typology? National Crim Victimization Survey (NCVS)
What are the two major types of motivation for crime in offenders? Instrumental and Expressive
The multi-trade typology of Clinard and Quinney says a corporate crime includes Restraint of trade, false advertising, and environmental pollution
You see premeditation and spontaneous acts in Offender-based typology
The target selection factors are Convenience or familiarity of the target, protection or guardianship of the target, and the attractiveness of the target
What are the main sources of information relative to typologies? Police reports, victim surveys, and offender interviews
Which theory is likely to explain criminality by brain disorders and inheritance? Biological theory
Which theory is likely to explain that criminality is caused by juvenile gangs drawing peers into a life style of behaviors and values? Subcultural theory
What are the 5 theories relative to criminality? Social disorganization, psychological, subcultural, biological, and anomie/strain
which theory would say that personality traits lead to criminality? Psychological theory
Which theory would say that society's emphasis on material success without adequate opportunities leads individuals to crime? Anomie/strain theory
Which theory would say that criminality is associated with a breakdown of community social control? Social disorganization theory
Cesare Beccaria said that most crime was motivated by Self-interest
What did Beccaria say were most important when it comes to crime? Prevention and deterrence
Lombroso argued that criminals were more like Apes
Which school of thought did Lombroso support? The positive school of thought
Beccaria said that punishment immediately follows the crime True
Lombroso's traits were NOT discredited as causes of crime False
Beccaria said that punishments that were severe would be more effective at deterrence than punishment which are certain but not severe False
Beccaria said that punishments should be fixed proportions between crimes and punishments True
Beccaria argued laws should NOT be stated universally and clearly to that all should understand False
Beccaria argued criminal court judges should have the right to interpret penal laws so they can give punishments they believe fit the circumstance of the case False
What is general deterrence? Happens when a criminal punishment is thought to stop average people in the population from committing the crime again
Deterrence theory and Rational choice theory are closest to which other criminological theory? Classical theory
Rational choice theory says that rational elements are never involved in expressive crimes of impulsivity and pathology False
Rational choice theory differs from most other crime theories because It attempts to explain the situational context of crime
The rationality for committing a burglary in a wealthy neighborhood, a housing project, and a middle class suburb are NOT always going to be the same True
Routine activities theory focuses on the Criminal opportunities available
In routine activities theory the rise in the percentage of women in college and workforce has led to an increase in crime True
According to routine activities theory the percentage of which type of murder is predicted to rise? Stranger murder
What are the 3 elements of routine activities theory? A motivated offender with criminal intentions, a person or oject providing a suitable target for the offender, and the absence of guardianship over the target
Burglary requires the theft of an object False
What is the definition of burglary? The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or a theft
Which type of burglary has had the biggest increase over the past four decades? Residential daytime
What are the four distinct burglary classifications? Residential daytime, residential nighttime, nonresidential daytime, nonresidential nighttime
The trend in burglary over the recent 10 years has decreased True
What type of crime is burglary? Instrumental
What is the clearance rate for burglary? 15%
A greater percentage of burglars are White
The percentage of arrested burglars who have prior arrests is around or above 75%
Victime of burglary are more likely to be Younger and black
Are men or women burglars more likely to have financial need as a motive for crime? Women
Burglars usually target victims who are strangers True
Co-offenders are common in burglaries True
What type of entry (forced or unforced) is more common in burglary? Forced entry
Sexual assault offenders are more likely to recidivate upon release from prison than are most other types of offenders False
Sexual assault offenders are more likely to be diagnosed with what? Antisocial personality disorder
Persons involved in interfamilial sexual assaults, exhibitionism, peeping, and child molestation are likely to be Older than others who sexually assault
Stranger rapes are more likely to be reported by victims than are acquaintance and date rapes True
Acquaintance rapes have increased in the victime offender relationship since the 1980s and stranger rapes have decreased True
Victim resistance in rape is higher when the offender is a stranger False
Serial sex murder is NOT a common pattern among serial rapists True
Adolescent sex offenders tend to have low social competence compared to other sex offenders True
What are the types of pedophiles? Temporary, criminal, promiscuous, careful, responsible, and saint
Gerry Sandusky, PSU football coach, fits the profile of which type of child molestor? Saint
Marital rape is more likely to occur multiple times than other types of rape True
According to social disorganization theory, high crime rate communities differ from low crime rate communities because There is a wider range of values in high crime rate communities
Shaw and McKay developed which theory? Social disorganization theory
Lombroso and Hooten are attributed to which theory? Biological theory
Who is rational choice theory attributed to? Cornish and Clarke
Routine activity theory was developed by Cohen and Felson
Social disorganization theory says most delinquents commit their crimes as members of groups True
What is one of the main elements of crime in relation to social disorganization theory? Poverty
What is collective efficacy? The opposite of crime; coming together collectively to act in an effective way to solve problems
Social disorganization theory adopts which concept? Collective efficacy
Who developed differential association theory? Edwin Sutherland
In differential association, it is argued that the process of learning criminal behavior involves the same mechanisms as learning conforming behavior True
What theory argues that learning criminal behavior occurs in intimate personal groups not movies and newspapers? Differential association theory
What things does Sutherland say DOES NOT explain criminal behavior? General needs and values like money, job, status, happiness
In differential association theory, the general needs and values in society like securing money, social status, and happiness explain criminal behavior False
Who is attributed to social learning theory? Ronald Akers
Social learning theory argues that associations with deviant groups precede the onset of criminal behavior True
Social learning theory says imitation of criminal behavior is a factor True
Social learning theory argues the rewards for behavior are Tangible and real like money OR intangible like ideaology and religion
The code of the streets is attributed to Anderson
In neighborhoods where the subculture of violence exists, most of the families are Decent families
What are the two types of families in the code of the street? Street and Decent families
Which criminological theory does the code of the streets concept fit best? Social learning theory
"Juice" is referred to as insuring one's share of respect
All males whether they are from decent or street families have to be familiar with and deal with the code of the streets True
Females usually fight over gossip or males True
What is a main cause of the creation of oppositional culture in the ghetto? Racist rejection
Who is attributed to bond theory? Travis Hirschi
Bond theory is also known as Control theory
Which element of bond theory is most related to rational choice (weighing the risk of losing what you have worked hard to obtain)? Commitment
Which element in bond theory is most related to differential association with conventional activities and the expression that idle hands are the devil's workship? Involvement
Which element in bond theory ismost related to the internalization of social norms from close relationships with others? Attachment
Which element in bond theory is most related to a person thinking that stealing is wrong no matter which group they associate with or how much the stolen item benefits her financially? Belief
Bond theory answers the question Why don't people commit crime?
Bond theory is a theory about why people conform NOT why they deviate True
Personality and psychopathology are the major causes of crime, says Hirschi False
What are the major causes of crime in bond theory? lack of attachment to parents or others who can instill self control in a child
Created by: ars49712