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Hematology/ oncology

Exam cards

Primary Prevention Smoking cessation, avoid carcinogens, increase high fiber foods, increase foods in carotene. Almost 1/3 of cancers could be prevents with primary prevention
Secondary prevention Promote screening and early detection; pap tests, breast and testicular self exams,
Benign tumors- Not cancerous.(Euploid-23 pairs of chromosomes) Well differentiated (cells resemble norm. cells), usu. encapsulated (don't infiltrate surrounding tissue), growth is slow, doesn't mets, doesn't cause tissue damage/death. **Only causes prob. if interferes w/ vital functions**
Malignant tumors- Cancerous. (Anueploid + or - pairs of chromosomes) Undifferentiated (cells don't resemble norm. cells), spreads to lymph/blood system, growth unpredictable, widespread effects, sends out messengers,uses more energy, Contains protein specific antigens; CEA or PSA
Metastic Cancer- Spread of malignant cells from primary tumore to distant sites through lymph/blood systems. Usu. follows a predictable pattern, certain cells bind to specific tissues, can "seed" into other areas, may break off and invade other structures that have enzymes that go out and kill surrounding tissue
Lymphatic Spread Most common mechanism of METS
Hematogenic Spread Malignant tumors rarely survive turbulence of arterial circulation. Penetrate basement membrane and begin to destroy tissue.
Angiogenesis Malignang cells induce growth of new capillaries. Tumor cells are then spread to the blood stream.
Side effects of Radiation Cells affected;skin-altered skin integrity, alopecia, erythema. GI tract- stomatitis, change/loss of taste, dec. salivation, N/V, anorexia. Bone marrow- anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, @risk for inf./bleeding. Systemic- fatigue, malaise, anorexia
Created by: 1029164086