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Ch 6 & 7

Hematology, Immunology and Dermatology

QuestionAnswer
Dermatology The medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the integumentary system
Melanin a dark brown or black pigment. In the epidermis it absorbs ultraviolet light from the sun to protect the DNA in skin cells form undergoing genetic mutations
Integumentary System Large, flat, flexible body system that covers the entire surface of the body. It includes the skin, sebaceous glands, sweat glands, hair and nails.
Keratin The most superficial part of the epidermis contains cells that have no nuclei and are filled with KERATIN, a hard, fibrous protein. They form a protective layer, but are dead cells-so they are constantly being shed
Epidermis The thin, outermost layer of the skin
Nails cover and protect the distal ends of the fingers and toes b/c these areas are easily traumatized. Each nail consists of several parts, and are composed of both living and dead cells.
Dermis The thicker layer beneath the epidermis. It is both firm and elastic b/c it contains collagen fibers and elastin fibers. It contains arteries, veins, and neurons as well as hair follicles, sebaceous glands and sweat glands.
Subcutaneous Tissues Loose, connective tissue and is not considered to be a part of the integumentary system. It is composed of ADIPOSE TISSUE or fat that contains LIPOCYTES- these cells store fat as an energy reserve.
Sebaceous Glands They are a type of exocrine gland, in the dermis. They secrete sebum through a duct that goes into a hair follicle. They are also known as OIL GLANDS.
Sweat Glands They are also known as exocrine glands, in the dermis. The sweat gland duct opens onto the surface of the skin through a pore. Sweat contains water, sodium, and small amounts of body wastes. Sweating helps to regulate the body temp.
Pil/o hair
Anaphylaxis Is a severe systemic allergic reaction that can be life threatening. Symptoms include respiratory distress, hypotension, and shock. This is also known as ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK!
Macule
Melanocytes Pigment- containing cell in the epidermis that produces MELANIN, a dark or black pigment that gives color to the skin and hair.
Rash Any type of skin lesion that is pink to red, flat or raised, pruritic or non-pruritic.
Albinism A lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and iris of the eye. This is a genetic mutation in which the melanocytes do not produce melanin-ALBINO
Striae "Stretch marks" in the skin of the abdomen and buttocks are the result of small tears in the dermis as the skin stretches to accommodate the pregnant uterus.
Burns Heat, electrical current, chemicals, and radiation or x-rays can cause a burn to the epidermis or dermis
Keloid A very firm, abnormally large scar that is bigger than the original injury. It is caused by an overproduction of collagen. It does not fad or decrease in size over time.
Genital Herpes Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 - is a STD that causes vesicles in the genital area. These lesions tend to recur during illness and stress
Tinea Cruris Skin infection caused by a fungus that feeds on epidermal cells. TINEA CRURIS occurs in the groin and genital areas and is known as JOCK ITCH.
Freckle BENIGN, pigmented, flat macule that develops after sun exposure. Freckles contain groups of melanocytes, they fad over time without continued sun exposure.
Polydactyly Is a congenital abnormality in which there are extra fingers or toes.
Characteristics of Malignant Melanoma A- Asymmetry. One side of the lesion has a different shape than the other side. B- Border or edge is irregular or ragged. C- Color varies from black to brown (or red) within the same lesion. D- Diameter is greater than 6 mm.
SLE Systemic Lupus Erythematosus - autoimmune disorder with deterioration of collagen in the skin and connective tissues. There is joint pain, sensitivity to sunlight and fatigue.
Split hair ends Schizotrichia
Tzanck Test A skin Scraping is done to obtain fluid from a vesicle. Herpes virus infections and shingles show characteristic giant cells with viruses in them.
Chemical Peel Skin resurfacing that uses a chemical to remove the epidermis. The strongest chemical peels are done in surgery.
Excisional Biopsy Procedure that uses a scalpel to remove an entire large lesion.
Benadryl Is an antipruritic drug, it decreases itching and are applied topically or given orally.
Exocrine Glands Sebaceous glands in the dermis. They secrete sebum through a duct that goes into a hair follicle. Sebum consists of oil that contains and protects the hair shaft to keep it form becoming brittle, they are also known as OIL GLANDS.
Antipruritic Drug Decrease Itching - Benadryl and Aveeno
Curettage Procedure that uses a CURET to scrape off a superficial skin lesion
Pruritus Itching. Pruritus is associated with many skin diseases. It is also a part of an allergic reaction b/c of the release of histamine.
Lesion Any area of visible damage on the skin, whether it is from disease or injury. Cyst, fissure, macule, papule, pustule, scale, vesicle, wheal.
Skin or Integument consists of 2 different layers: the epidermis and the dermis.
Hair Covers most of the body, although its consistency and color vary from one part of the body to another and from person to person. Each hair forms in a hair follicle in the dermis.
Nails Composed of both living and dead cells. the nail root produces karatin-containing cells that form the lunula. As the nail plate grows, these cells die and harden to form a protective covering for the distal end of the finger.
Hematopoiesis is the process by which all of the formed elements in the plasma are produced. Hematopoiesis occurs in the red marrow of long bones or flat bones. Every type of blood cell and blood cell fragment begins in the bone marrow as a very immature cell-STEM CELL
Fluid Portion of Blood
Blood Dyscrasia Any disease condition involving blood cells.
Erythrocyte The characteristic red color of erythrocytes (red blood cells) and their unique "donut" shape. each erythrocyte has a depressed center and no cell nucleus.
Blood Clotting thromb/o - blood clot.... prothrombin is the clotting factor that is activated just before the thrombus is formed
Albumin protein molecule in the blood - plasma proteins, primarily ALBUMIN, are molecules that are too large to pass through the wall of a blood vessel.
Aggregation thrombocytes stick to the damaged blood vessel wall and from clumps that also decrease the loss of blood, aka PLATELET AGGREGATION.
Immune Response involves a coordinated effort between the blood and the lymphatic system to destroy microorganisms that invade the body and cancerous cells that arise within the body.
Thrombocytes A platelet. A thrombocyte is a cell fragment that does not have a nucleus. Thrombocytes are active in the blood clotting process.
Platelets A Thrombocyte
Leukocyte A white blood cell. There are five different types of mature leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes.
Peripheral Blood Smear Blood test done manually to examine the characteristics of erythrocytes and leukocytes under the microscope.
DVT Deep Venous Thrombosis - When a blood clot (thrombus) forms in a deep vein, there is swelling as the blood flow is impaired, and redness and warmth as the tissues become inflamed.
Thrombocytopenia Deficiency in the number of thrombocytes due to exposure to radiation, chemicals, or drugs that damage stem cells in the bone marrow. Results in small, pinpoint hemorrhages or PETECHIAE and larger hemorrhages or ECCHYMOSES and bruises on the skin,
Lymphedema Generalized swelling of an arm or leg that occurs after surgery when a chain of lymph nodes has been removed.
Agglutination If a donors red blood cells clump together (agglutination) the blood types are not compatible.
Lymph Nodes Are encapsulated structures that are round, oval, or bean shaped. They range in size from the head of a pin to 1 inch.
Prothrombin is the clotting factor that is activated just before the thrombus is formed
Platelet Aggregation Thrombocytes stick to the damaged blood vessel wall and from clumps that also decrease the loss of blood.
Clotting Factor A series of 12 substances that are released either from platelets or injured tissue or are produced by the liver. They activate each other in a series of steps that form fibrin strands that trap erythrocytes and form a blood clot.
Deficiency of Thrombocytes
Smallest Leukocytes
Thymus Lymphoid organ in the mediastinum. As an endocrine gland, it secretes thymosins, which are hormones that cause lymphoblasts in the thymus to mature into T cell lymphocytes.
Interleukin Substance released by macrophages that stimulates B cell and T cell lymphocytes and activates NK cells. It also produces fever.
Microcytic Small in size
Hemophilia Inherited genetic abnormality that causes a lack or a deficiency of a specific clotting factor. The abnormal gene is carried by a female on the X chromosome, but she does not have the disease.
Autologous Patients scheduled to have certain types of surgery may be asked to donate a unit of their own blood in advance so they can receive it during surgery * pertaining to the study of self
Viscosity
Electrolytes Are chemical structures that carry a positive or negative electrical charge.
Test to detect HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus Tests
Types of Leukemia Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML) Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
Splenectomy Removal of the spleen when it has ruptured due to trauma.
Transfusion Reaction Reaction that occurs when a patient receives a transfusion with an incompatible blood type.
Lymphatic vessels Are similar in structure to blood vessels, but with several important differences.
Created by: nolanmama06