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pediatrics ch 11

the preschool child

Preoperational Thinking Implies that children cannot think in terms of operations, or the ability to logically manipulate objects in relation to each other; they base their reasoning on what they see and hear, and believe they have magical powers
Egocentrism A type of thinking in which children have difficulty seeing any point of view other than their own; Children’s knowledge and understanding are restricted to their own limited experiences, and as a result, misconceptions arise
Animism A tendency to attribute life to inanimate objects
Centering The tendency to concentrate on a single outstanding characteristic of an object while excluding its other features
Artificialism The idea that the world and everything in it is created by human beings
Discipline includes all methods that are used to change behavior
Punishment is a very specific procedure that is used to decrease behavior that will be described under basic principles
Consistency and Modeling children identify and imitate adult behavior, both verbal and nonverbal
Four methods to reduce jealousy include prepare the child for arrival of infant; let them have feeling of helping; inflate their ego, attend to older child’s needs first
Thumb Sucking An instinctual behavioral pattern that can be considered normal; It is often used as a comforting measure and does not necessarily mean the child is insecure
Thumb sucking and teeth does not have a detrimental effect on the teeth as long as the habit is discontinued before the second teeth have erupted; most children stop by school age.
Primary enuresis refers to bedwetting in the child who has never been dry
Secondary enuresis refers to a recurrence of bedwetting in a child who has been dry for a period of 1 year or more
What may be cause of sudden onset of secondary enuresis? psychological stress, such as a death in the family or divorce.
Treatment and nursing care of enuresis A detailed history is obtained; identify medications taken; review developmental landmarks; education of the family is extremely crucial to prevent secondary emotional problems
Child care guidelines CPR trained; ratio; prepared in early childhood education; adequate physical facilities; cost; child readiness; talk to person in charge and other parents
Value of Play important to both the well and the sick child’s physical, mental, emotional, and social development
Value of play in a hospital visit Preschool children may be unfamiliar with every facet of the hospital, but they know how to play, and playing is a good way for the nurse to establish rapport with them
Art therapy Assists children to express their feelings through drawings, clay, and other media
Accidents major threat in ages 3-5; enforce use of car seats and booster seats; teach safe areas for tricycle riding
Created by: laotracuata