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Bio117 CH41

Freeman (Vocab) Chapter 41: Animal Form and Function

QuestionAnswer
acclimatization Gradual physiological adjustment of an organism to new environmental conditions that occur naturally or as part of a laboratory experiment.
adaptation Any heritable trait that increases the fitness of an individual with that trait, compared with individuals without that trait, in a particular environment.
adipose tissue A type of connective tissue whose cells store fats.
anatomy The study of the physical structure of organisms.
axon A long projection of a neuron that can propagate an action potential and transmit it to another neuron.
basal lamina A thick, collagen-rich extracellular matrix that underlies most epithelial tissues (e.g., skin) in animals.
basal metabolic rate (BMR) The total energy consumption by an organism at rest in a comfortable environment. For aerobes, often measured as the amount of oxygen consumed per hour.
basolateral Toward the bottom and sides. In animals, the side of an epithelial layer that faces other body tissues and not the environment.
blood A type of connective tissue consisting of red blood cells and leukocytes suspended in a fluid portion called plasma.
bone A type of vertebrate connective tissue consisting of living cells and blood vessels within a hard extracellular matrix composed of calcium phosphate (CaPO4) and small amounts of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and protein fibers.
capillary One of the numerous small, thin-walled blood vessels that permeate all tissues and organs, and allow exchange of gases and other molecules between blood and body cells.
cardiac muscle The muscle tissue of the vertebrate heart. Consists of long branched fibers that are electrically connected and that initiate their own contractions; not under voluntary control. Compare with striated and smooth muscle.
cartilage A type of vertebrate connective tissue that consists of relatively few cells scattered in a stiff matrix of polysaccharides and protein fibers.
conduction Direct transfer of heat between two objects that are in physical contact. Compare with convection.
connective tissue An animal tissue consisting of scattered cells in a liquid, jellylike, or solid extracellular matrix. Includes bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood.
conduction Direct transfer of heat between two objects that are in physical contact. Compare with convection.
connective tissue An animal tissue consisting of scattered cells in a liquid, jellylike, or solid extracellular matrix. Includes bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, and blood.
convection Transfer of heat by movement of large volumes of a gas or liquid. Compare with conduction.
countercurrent exchange In animals, any anatomical arrangement that allows the maximum transfer of heat or a soluble substance from one fluid to another. The two fluids must be flowing in opposite directions and have a heat or concentration gradient between them.
dendrite A short extension from a neuron's cell body that receives signals from other neurons.
dense connective tissue A type of connective tissue, distinguished by having an extracellular matrix dominated by collagen fibers.
ectotherm An animal that does not use internally generated heat to regulate its body temperature. Compare with endotherm.
effector Any cell, organ, or structure with which an animal can respond to external or internal stimuli. Usually functions, along with a sensor and integrator, as part of a homeostatic system.
endotherm An animal whose primary source of body heat is internally generated heat. Compare with ectotherm.
epithelial tissue An animal tissue consisting of sheet-like layers of tightly packed cells that lines an organ, a duct, or a body surface. Also called epithelial tissue.
epithelium (plural: epithelia) An animal tissue consisting of sheet-like layers of tightly packed cells that lines an organ, a duct, or a body surface. Also called epithelial tissue.
evaporation The energy-absorbing phase change from a liquid state to a gaseous state. Many organisms evaporate water as a means of heat loss.
fluid connective tissue A type of connective tissue, distinguished by having a liquid extracellular matrix.
gill lamella One of hundreds to thousands of sheetlike structures, each containing a capillary bed, that makes up a gill filament.
gland An organ whose primary function is to secrete some substance, either into the blood (endocrine gland) or into some other space such as the gut or skin (exocrine gland).
heat-shock protein Proteins that facilitate refolding of proteins that have been denatured by heat or other agents.
heterotherm An animal whose body temperature varies markedly with environmental conditions. Compare with homeotherm.
hibernation An energy-conserving physiological state, marked by a decrease in metabolic rate, body temperature, and activity, that lasts for a prolonged period (weeks to months). Occurs in some animals in response to winter cold and scarcity of food. Compare with tor
homeostasis The array of relatively stable chemical and physical conditions in an animal's cells, tissues, and organs. May be achieved by the body's passively matching the conditions of a stable external environment (conformational homeostasis) or by active physiolog
homeotherm An animal that has a constant or relatively constant body temperature. Compare with heterotherm.
hypothalamus A part of the brain that functions in maintaining the body's internal physiological state by regulating the autonomic nervous system, endocrine system, body temperature, water balance, and appetite.
integrator A component of an animal's nervous system that functions as part of a homeostatic system by evaluating sensory information and triggering appropriate responses. See effector and sensor.
involuntary muscle Muscle that cannot respond to conscious thought.
loose connective tissue A type of connective tissue consisting of fibrous proteins in a soft matrix. Often functions as padding for organs.
metabolic rate The total energy use by all the cells of an individual. For aerobic organisms, often measured as the amount of oxygen consumed per hour.
metabolic water The water that is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration.
multicellularity The state of being composed of many cells that adhere to each other and do not all express the same genes with the result that some cells have specialized functions.
muscle fiber A single muscle cell.
muscle tissue An animal tissue consisting of bundles of long, thin contractile cells (muscle fibers).
negative feedback A self-limiting, corrective response in which a deviation in some variable (e.g., body temperature, blood pH, concentration of some compound) triggers responses aimed at returning the variable to normal.
nervous tissue An animal tissue consisting of nerve cells (neurons) and various supporting cells.
neuron A cell that is specialized for the transmission of nerve impulses. Typically has dendrites, a cell body, and a long axon that forms synapses with other neurons. Also called nerve cell.
organ A group of tissues organized into a functional and structural unit.
organ system Groups of tissues and organs that work together to perform a function.
physiology The study of how an organism's body functions.
radiation Transfer of heat between two bodies that are not in direct physical contact. More generally, the emission of electromagnetic energy of any wavelength.
sensor Any cell, organ, or structure with which an animal can sense some aspect of the external or internal environment. Usually functions, along with an integrator and effector, as part of a homeostatic system.
set point A normal or target value for a regulated internal variable, such as body heat or blood pH.
skeletal muscle (striated muscle) The muscle tissue attached to the bones of the vertebrate skeleton. Consists of long, unbranched muscle fibers with a characteristic striped (striated) appearance; controlled voluntarily. Also called striated muscle. Compare with cardiac and smooth muscle
smooth muscle The unstriated muscle tissue that lines the intestine, blood vessels, and some other organs. Consists of tapered, unbranched cells that can sustain long contractions. Not voluntarily controlled. Compare with cardiac and striated muscle.
supporting connective tissue A type of connective tissue, distinguished by having a firm extracellular matrix.
thermoregulation Regulation of body temperature.
tissue A group of similar cells that function as a unit, such as muscle tissue or epithelial tissue.
torpor An energy-conserving physiological state, marked by a decrease in metabolic rate, body temperature, and activity, that lasts for a short period (overnight to a few days or weeks). Occurs in some small mammals when the ambient temperature drops significant
trade-off In evolutionary biology, an inescapable compromise between two traits that cannot be optimized simultaneously. Also called fitness trade-off.
villi Small, fingerlike projections of the lining of the small intestine. Function to increase the surface area available for absorption of nutrients.
voluntary muscle Muscle tissue that can respond to conscious thought.
Created by: Liwa91