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Research Exam 2

Design validity are you finding what you claim to find?
Internal validity asks if it's the IV (or something else) that caused or resulted in the change in the DV
Threats to internal validity history; selection; maturation; testing; mortality; instrumentation
Threats to internal validity: history specific events occurring between 1st and 2nd measurement, not the IV
Threats to internal validity: Selection biases in selection of sample
Threats to internal validity: Maturation respondents change as a result of passage of time vs. the IV
Threats to internal validity: Testing effects of taking a test on the scores of a second test
Threats to internal validity: Mortality loss of respondents from control groups; goal usually maintain 80%
Threats to internal validity: instrumentation changes in calibration of measuring instrument or changes in scorers may result in problems with measurements
External validity questions the conditions under which the findings may be generalized; deals with the ability to generalize the findings outside the study; across types of persons, settings, et times
Threats to external validity selections effects (who); reactive effects (where-how); measurement effects (how-when-what)
Sampling process of selecting representative units of a population for study in a research investigation
Population a well-defined set that has certain properties (people, animals, objects, events)
ID'ing population descriptors specify inclusion (eligibility) criteria; specify exclusion (deliminations) criteria; ...leads to sample selection
Population descriptor examples gender, age, marital status, SES, religion, ethnicity, education, health status, dx, co-morbidities
target population the OVERALL GROUP of subjects or events to which the researcher is interested in generalizing conclusions
Accessible population the group of PEOPLE AVAILABLE to the researcher from which to pick a sample
Sampling a PROCESS OF SELECTING A PORTION OR SUBSET of the designated population to represent the entire population
Sample a SUBSET of sampling units from a population
Sampling frame a list of ALL UNITS of the population
Element the most BASIC UNIT (SUBJECT) about which information is collected
Sampling elements people, places, objects
Representative sample (representativeness) one whose key characteristics closely approximate those of the population
Types of sampling strategies probability; non-probability
Probability sampling strategies each subject has an equal chance of being chosen to be in the sample; random selection
Simple random probability sampling population defined, sampling frame listed, subset from this sample is randomly selected; (ex: names out of a hat)
Advantages of Simple random probability sampling least bias; representativeness of sample to population characteristics maximized esp. c large sample size; differences d/t chance
Disadvantages of Simple random probability sampling time consuming; inefficient; incomplete/inaccurate lists
Stratified probability sampling selecting a sample that proportionally different subgroups (strata) in a population; an appropriate # of elements from each subgroup are randomly selected based on their proportion in the population (ex: 20%=2/10, 50%=5/10, 30%=3/10)
Multi-stage probability sampling involves a successive random sampling of units (clusters) that progress from large to small and meets sample eligibility criteria (ex: sample of NPs -> begin c list of hospitals -> list of NPs -> sample of individual NPs)
Advantages of Multi-stage probability sampling more economical in time et money, esp. if population is large et geographically dispersed
Disadvantages of Multi-stage probability sampling more sampling errors; appropriate data analysis very complex
Systematic probability sampling selection of subjects randomly drawn from a population list at fixed intervals; q Kth member; more convenient et efficient than simple random; may inadvertently introduce bias
Systematic probability sampling Kth equation KNOW!!! population/sample size = Kth (ex: 40 people total/10 in sample = q 4th)
Non-probability sampling non-random selection of sample
Convenience non-probability sampling used the most; quantitative; non-random; any subject that is available, meets the inclusion criteria, et is willing to participate is included (ex: Ruth's asthma study)
Quota non-probability sampling IDs strata of the population et proportionately represents the strata in teh sample; convenience sample in each strata (non-random selection) (ex: male/female opinion poll @ the mall, recruit until 50 men et 50 women surveyed)
Purposive non-probability sampling (Part 1) Qualitative; effective pretesting of new instruments c purposive sample of divergent types of people; validation of scale/test; collect exploratory data r/t unusual/highly specific pop. particularly when total target pop. remains unknown to researcher
Purposive non-probability sampling (Part 2) collection of descriptive data that seek to describe lived experience of particular phenomenon; focus of study pop. r/t specific dx or demographic characteristic; network or snowball sampling
Convenience sampling vs Purposive sampling c = larger sample, p = smaller sample
Disproportionate sampling certain proportion w/in sample, but choose more or less of certain sample to ensure enough sample (ex: 1 of 10 nursing students = males, but choose 10 males et 10 females for study)
Factors Influencing sample size design; sampling procedure; formula to estimate optimum sample size; degree of precision needed; heterogeneity of attributes; relative frequency of phenomenon occurs; cost of strategy
Power Analysis - KNOW!!! Equation used to determine sample size
Qualitative samples purposive sampling; data saturation (no new data emerges during data - collection process)
What strategy was used if sampling strategy was not specified? quant = convenience; qual = purposive
Epistemology theory of knowledge; branch of philosophy that investigates how people know what they know; constructivist et positivist paradigm
constructivist paradigm truth determined by the individual or cultural group; qualitative; subjectivism; multiple realities; influence culture et environment; truth from individual et group; context emphasize; aims to describe, understand, transform; active participant; dialogic
positivist paradigm truth sought via replicable observation; quatitative; objectivism; "real reality"; natural laws drives; context min; aims to describe, predict, explain, control; neutral observer; experimental method
What is qualitative research? study of research questions about human experiences. often conducted in natural settings, et uses data that are words or text, rather than numerical, in order to describe the experiences that are being studied
topics investigated using qualitative approach personal et social construction of disease, prevention, tx, et risk; life c disease et tx; decision-making c begin et end of life issues; contextual factors r/t adherence, quality of caure, prevention et health promotion behaviors
qualitative research methods - purpose - KNOW!!!! guide nursing practice; contribute to instrument development; build nursing theory
components of qualitative research report literature review; study design; sample; setting; data collection; data analysis; findings
components of qualitative research report - literature review very brief in intro; done mostly p data collection; integrated into findings
components of qualitative research report - sample purposive sample; data saturation
components of qualitative research report - setting naturalistic setting (ex: home, community)
components of qualitative research report - data collection informal consent; words; time involved (# of times et how long interviewed); data saturation; grand tour question (the broad, main question of study)
components of qualitative research report - data analysis find commonalities et differences; ID overarching categories that capture meaning; computer management of data; thorough reading/re-reading (learn their language)
components of qualitative research report - findings detailed, descriptive language; metaphors, stories; lit review integrated into findings; themes, quotes presented to support findings
data saturation keep looking for information until no longer hearing new information
qualitative research and EBP insight or empathy; assessment of status or progress; anticipatory guidance; coaching; improve communication c pts et c each other
key methods of qualitative research ethnography; grounded theory; pheomenology; case studies; historiography; participatory action research
phenomenology a research approach that aims to describe experience as it is lived; a research method aimed at obtaining a DESCRIPTION of an experience as it is lived in order to understand the MEANING of that experience for those who have it
essence of phenomenology description of the individual's LIVED EXPERIENCE
foundation of phenomenology philosophy
structuring a study using phenomenology research question, bracketing, sample selection, sample size, data saturation, data, computer management of data, data analysis, findings
bracketing ID et set aside personal biases
sample selection for phenomenology studies purposive sample; participants are living the experience or has lived the experience in the past
data for phenomenology studies written, oral, tape-recorded, transcription, memos (mood, Qs, etc. not captured in transcription)
data analysis in phenomenology studies reading et re-reading; significant phrases in participants words; central meaning in researcher's words; grouping together segments; synthesis of meanings
findings of phenomenology studies detailed descriptive language
Grounded theory theory that is constructed inductively from a base of observations of the world as it is lived by a selected group of people; MAIN FOCUS = SOCIAL INTERACTION
KNOW!!! Grounded theory method is used to ... ...CONSTRUCT THEORY where no theory exists
Essence of grounded theory uses systematic set of procedures to arrive at theory about basic social processes in groups
Foundation of grounded theory symbolic interaction et the social sciences
Social processes of grounded theory patterns of action et interaction among social units
symbolic interaction of grounded theory focus on nature of social interaction among individuals
modifiability ability to change theory in light of new data
data collection et data analysis of grounded theory OCCUR SIMULTANEOUSLY; interviews; skilled observations of interactions; field notes; theoretical sampling
constant comparison in grounded theory grounded theory method of data analysis
grounded theory findings provide steps of process; logic of method; theory that has emerged
Ethnography scientifically describes et interprets CULTURAL or social groups or systems
goal of ethnographer understand natives' view of the world
essence of Ethnography descriptions of cultural groups or subgroups
Foundation of Ethnography cultural anthropology
eMic view of Ethnography insider's view; views of the participants/Members of the social group
etic view of Ethnography outsider's view; researcher's interpretation of views about the human social life in a social science perspective
research question of Ethnography address questions that concern how cultural knowledge, norms, values, et other contextual variables influence one's health experience
sample selection of Ethnography cultural group of living the experience under investigation; key informants
data collection of Ethnography FIELDWORK; participant observation; immersion into setting; interviews of informants; collecting material items reflective of culture; photos, films, artwork, writing, etc; should be immersed for a while to ensure not observing any "acting"
data analysis of Ethnography OCCURS SIMULTANEOUSLY c data collection; search for domains or symbolic categories
findings of Ethnography pulling reader in; recreating experimental mood; adding surprise; reconstructing ethnographic experience; creating closure for the study
Naturalistic approach combines... ethnography, phenomenology, et grounded theory; SEEN MOST OFTEN
Case study studying peculiarities et the commonalities of a specific case
historical method systematic compilation of data et the critical presentation, evaluation, et interpretation of facts regarding people, events, et occurrences of the past
essence of historical method systematic compilation of data to describe some past event
foundation of historical method philosophy, art et science
community based participatory research participatory action research (PAR); systematically access the voice of a community to plan context appropriate action; change, or action is the intended "end-product"; look, think, act; community members equal partners in all phases of research process
basic components to research ID phenomenon; structuring the study; gathering the data; analyzing the data; describing the findings
issues in qualitative research ethics; naturalistic setting (gaining entry into settings); emergent nature of the design (change r/t findings); researcher-participant interaction (nurse-researching vs nurse-intervening); researcher as instrument
is the data-collection procedure appropriate to the method? observation (field observation) (participant observation, immersion in setting, field notes); interviews (audiotaped et transcribed); review documents
criteria for judging scientific rigor - KNOW!!! credibility (truth of findings) + auditability (accountability r/t info leading questions et steps in procedures) + fittingness (faithfulness to reality) = confirmability (findings reflect implementation three standards involved)
trustworthiness rigor or goodness of data
verification procedures prolonged engagement et persistent observation; peer review or debriefing; negative case analysis; bracketing; member checks; thick, rich description; external audits
triangulation combining methods, theories, data, sources, or investigators to converge on a single construct; inc strength et consistency of evidence; uses both qual et quant
Research Design Purpose: Plan Control Objectivity; accuracy; feasibility; control; homogeneous sample; constancy; manipulation; randomization
Feasibility of design time; subject availability; facility et equipment availability; money; researcher experience; ethics
control of design intervention fidelity (faithful to design); consistency
constancy of design intervention fidelity
Manipulation of design experimental; control group
Elements of research design participants (who); observations (what); measurement of time (when); selection of subjects (where); role of investigator
Purpose of research to describe et explain how et why people behave the way they do; need to know this to effectively intervene
Selection of design appropriate to research question; max control; hold conditions of study constant; estab specific sampling criteria; max level of evidence --> max control
Philosophical underpinnings of design
Experimental Design Features - KNOW!!! Randomization; control group; manipulation (IV); level 2 randomized control has to have ALL 3 features to be true randomized trials
Experimental Design Types: Level 2 Evidence true experimental design; solomon four-group design; after-only design (quantitative)
Experimental Design: Advantages et Disadvantages ONLY way to truly test cause et effect; highest level of evidence for single studies; not all research Qs amenable to experimental manipulation or randomization; costly; threats to internal validity; difficult logistics in field; hawthorne effect
hawthorne effect just being observed makes people "act" differently
quasi-experimental types: level 3 evidence nonequivalent control group design; after-only nonequivalent group design; one-group (pretest-posttest design); time series design
Experimental Level 2; randomization; control group; manipulation
Quasi-experimental Level 3; no randomization; non-equivalent or no control group; typically, there is manipulation of the IV
quasi-experimental: advantages et disadvantages practical et more feasible, especially in clinical settings; some generalizability; unable to make clear cause et effect statements; many not be able to randomize; may control some extraneous variables (a priori by design, statistically)
the EBP connection experimental et quasi-experimental studies offer strongest evidence for interventions; collect strongest, most relevant et current evidence r/t your question; critically evaluate the study for quality
non-experimental studies no manipulating IV (IV already occurred); concepts of control still observed; cohort-subjects of a specific group that are being studied
survey studies descriptive, exploratory, comparative
advantages of survey studies economical way to gather large amount of data from a large population; fairly accurate
disadvantages of survey studies superficial info; time consuming et costly; requires expertise (instrument construction, sampling techniques, interviewing, data analysis)
developmental studies cross-sectional, longitudinal et prospective studies, retrospective et ex post facto studies
correlational studies examining relationship b/w variables; as 1 variable changes does related change occur in other variable?; quantifies strength of relationship; descriptive or predictive; do NOT determine cause et effect
difference studies comparison of means
developmental studies concerned c relationships et differences - @ 1 point in time AND c changes that result over time
cross-sectional studies one point in time; can explore relationships et correlations; can explore comparisons or differences
longitudinal/prospective or cohort studies collect data from same cohort (group) @ different times; relationships et differences; repeated measures
retrospective/ex post facto/case control studies looking back
non-experiemental design advantages et disadvantages (part 1) difficulty explaining cause et effect relationships; important to developing knowledge base about phenomenon of interest; useful in forecasting or making predictions; designs when randomization, control et manipulation are not appropriate/possible
non-experiemental design advantages et disadvantages (part 2) useful in testing theoretical models of how variables work together in a group in a particular situation
methodologic research development et eval of data (instruments, scales, techniques); psychometrics (measurement of concepts such as anxiety, hope, etc.)
meta-analysis research method; each study is unit of analysis
secondary analysis researcher takes data from 1 study et asks a different question for a secondary purpose
Created by: kdrummond08



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