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VitaminsRN

Nursing Vitamins

QuestionAnswer
How many water soluble vitamins? (9) Vitamin B1 Thiamine, Vitamin B2 Riboflavin, Vitamin B3 Niacin, Vitamin B6 Pyridoxine, Vitamin B12 Cobalamin, Folate Folic Acid, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, Vitamin C Ascorbic Acid.
How many fat soluble vitamins? (4) Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin E (tocopherol), Vitamin K
How many Major Minerals? (4)Calcium, Phosphate, Magnesium, Sulfur.
What is a trace mineral? Iron
What are the 5 major electrolytes? Magnesium, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Calcium. (5)
Functions: Plays a role in CHO metabolism, as a coenzyme, Helps nervous system, heart, muscles and tissue function properly. Promotes normal appetite and good functioning. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Good sources: Whole grains, wheat germ, enriched breads and cereals, Organ meats (liver), pork, Dried peas and beans. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Beriberi. Sx of Deficiency: Mental confusion, ↓ short term memory, fatigue, apathy, poor appetite, weight loss, edema, muscle weakness & wasting, painful calf muscles, sudden death from heart failure. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Functions: Coenzyme in energy metabolism, promotes normal nervous system function. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Good sources: Milk & Dairy products, Whole grains, enriched breads & cereals, green leafy vegetables, meat. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Sx of Deficiency: Dermatitis, tongue inflammation, photophobia, cataracts, angular, stomatitis & Cheilosis. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Functions: Coenzyme in energy metabolism, aids in the conversion of tryptophan in niacin. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Good Sources: All protein foods, enriched breads & cereals, whole grains. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Sx of Deficiency: Pellagra (rare)- 4 "D"s Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, irritability, mental confusion I/t psychosis, Death. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Sx of Toxicity: From supplements & drugs: flushing (caused by vasodilation), Liver damage, gastric ulcers, ↓ BP, Diarrhea, N&V. Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Functions: Coenzyme in amino & fatty acid metabolism, helps convert tryptophan to niacin, Helps produce insulin, hemoglobin, myelin sheaths and antibodies. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Good Sources: Liver and red meats, Fish, Poultry, Green Leafy Vegetables, Whole grains, Nuts. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Sx of Deficiency: Dermatitis, Tongue Inflammation, Abnormal brain wave patterns, convulsions, peripheral neuropathy. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Sx of Toxicity: Depression, Fatigue, Irritability, Headaches, Sensory nerve damage. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Functions: Coenzyme in synthesis of new cells, Aids in hemoglobin synthesis, Maintains Nerve Cells. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Good Sources: Animal products, not found in significant plant sources. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Sx of Deficiency: Pernicious Anemia, Anorexic, indigestion, wt. loss. Various psychiatric disorders, Neurological changes: poor muscle coord, poor memory. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)
Functions: coenzyme in DNA synthesis, Functions in the formation of RBC's & in normal functioning of the GI tract. Folate (Folic Acid)
Good Sources: Liver, Dark green leafy vegetables, dried peas & beans, Breads & Cereals fortified with folic acid. Folate (Folic Acid)
Sx of Deficiency: Impaired cell division, Macrocytic Anemia, Depression Mental Confusion, Fainting, Fatigue. Folate (Folic Acid)
Sx of Toxicity: Too much can mask Vitamin B12 deficiency. Folate (Folic Acid)
Functions: Essential part of complex enzymes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Pantothenic Acid
Good Sources: Meat, Poultry, Fish, whole grain cereals, Dried peas & Beans. Pantothenic Acid
Sx of Deficiency: Rare: general failure of all body systems. Pantothenic Acid
Functions: Essential for activity of many enzyme systems, Plays central role in fatty acid synthesis & in the metabolism of CHO & Protein. Biotin
Good Sources: Egg yolk (raw egg white destroys biotin), Liver, Milk, Dark green leafy vegetables. Biotin
Sx of Deficiency: Rare, but includes types of Anemia, depression, insomnia, muscle pain, dermatitis. Biotin
Functions: Help protect the body against infections and aids in wound healing and recovery from operations. Collagen synthesis, Antioxidant, Promotes iron absorption, is important in tooth dentin, bones, cartilage, connective tissue and blood vessels. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Good Sources: Citrus Fruit, Tomatoes, Strawberries, Cantaloupe, Currants, Green Leafy Vegetables, Green and Red Peppers, Broccoli, Cabbage, Potatoes, Brussels Sprouts. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Sx of Deficiency: Bleeding Gums, Pinpoint hemorrhages under skin, Scurvy: Hemorrhaging, Muscle Degeneration, Skin Changes, Delayed wound healing, softening of the bones, soft loose teeth, Anemia, Susceptibility to Infection. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Sx of Toxicity: Diarrhea, Abdominal cramps, Nausea, Headache, Interferes with tests fecal and urinary occult blood, Will provide false positive test for glucosuria. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)
Functions: Maintenance and formation of epithelial cells and mucous membranes, Formation of visual purple enables eye to adapt to dim light e.g. for night vision, Normal growth and development of bones and teeth, important role in immune function. Vitamin A
Good Sources: Retinol: Liver, milk, butter, cheese, margarine, egg yolk, ready to eat cereals. Beta-Carotene: Green leafy vegetables, broccoli, carrots, pumpkin, red pepper, sweet potato, tomatoes, watermelon. Vitamin A
Sx of Deficiency: Night blindness, keratinized skin (rough, dry skin), Xerophthalmia (eye disease), Bone growth ceases; teeth crack and tend to decay, ↓ saliva I/t ↑dysphagia I/t anorexia. ↓ Mucous secretion of stomach and intestines I/t impaired digest. Vitamin A
Sx of Toxicity: Headaches, Vomiting, Double Vision, Hair loss, BOne abnormalities, liver damage, can cause birth defects during pregnancy. Vitamin A
Functions: Aids in absorption of calcium and phosphorus, Regulates blood levels of calcium, promotes bone and teeth mineralization. Vitamin D
Good Sources: Sunlight on the skin, Fortified Milk, Fish with bones (Salmon), Cod liver oil. Vitamin D
Sx of Deficiency: Rickets (infants and children), Osteomalacia, Bone Malformation (bowed legs), Enlargement of ends of lone bones (knock knees). Vitamin D
Sx of Toxicity: Calcification of soft tissues, Hypercalcemia, Renal Stones, Growth failure in children. Vitamin D
Functions: Prevents oxidative destruction of Vitamin A in the intestine, Stimulates calcium reabsorption from the kidneys, Protects cell membranes (e.g. protects RBC's from rupture- hemolysis). Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
Good Sources: Wheat germ, Vegetable Oils, Legumes, Whole grains, Fish, Green Leafy Vegetables. Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
Sx of Deficiency: ↑ RBC Hemolysis Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
Sx of Toxicity: Relatively nontoxic, ↑ high doses enhance action of anticoagulation therapy. Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
Functions: Formation of prothrombin and other factors necessary for blood clotting, synthesis of intestinal bacteria. Vitamin K
Good Sources: Dark green leafy vegetables, Cabbage family, Liver, and Eggs. Vitamin K
Sx of Deficiency: Hemorrhage. Vitamin K
Sx of Toxicity: No known toxicity known. Vitamin K
Functions: Helps build strong bones and teeth, Muscle contraction and relaxation, Plays role in normal function of the nervous system, e.g. nerve transmission, blood coagulation, May help prevent Hypertension. Calcium
Good Sources: Milk & milk products, Fortified Orange Juice, Dark green leafy vegetables, Small Fish with bones, Tofu, Dried peas and beans. Calcium
Sx of Deficiency: Poor bone growth & tooth development i/t↑ risk of dental caries, rickets (bowling of legs) in children; osteomalacia (soft bones) & osteoporosis (brittle bones) in Adults, Poor blood clotting, Possible HTN. Calcium
Sx of Toxicity: Constipation, ↑ risk of renal stone formation, Impaired absorption of iron & other minerals. Calcium
Functions: Helps build strong bones & teeth, Aids in maintaining the bodes acid-base balance, Helps in oxidation of fats and CHO (energy metabolism), Cell membrane structure, Regulation of hormone & coenzyme activity. Phosphorous
Good Sources: All animal products e.g. milk meat, poultry, eggs. Whole grains, Soft drinks (used to make the fizz-carbonation). Phosphorous
Sx of Deficiency: Rare, but with malabsorption can cause anorexia, weakness, stiff joints, and Fragile bones. Phosphorous
Sx of Toxicity: Low blood calcium (hypocalcemia Tetany-muscle spasms). Phosphorous
Functions: Helps build strong bones and teeth, smooth muscle relaxation, protein synthesis, CHO metabolism, Enzyme Activity. Magnesium
Good Sources: Dark leafy vegetables, Nuts, Dried peas & beans, Seafood, Coffee, Tea, Cocoa, Hard water. Magnesium
Sx of Deficiency: Rare, but in disease states ma I/t CNS problems ( e.g. confusion , apathy, poor memory, & Hallucinations) & neuromuscular problems (e.g. muscular weakness, cramps, tremor, weakness & cardiac arrhythmia). Magnesium
Sx of Toxicity: None from food, supplemental can cause diarrhea, nausea, and cramping, Excessive Mg from Epsom Salts causes diarrhea. Magnesium
Functions: Component of biotin, thiamin, and insulin. Regulates cell membrane permeability. Sulfur
Good Sources: Protein rich foods, e.g. meat, eggs, milk. Sulfur
Sx of Deficiency: None documented in humans. Sulfur
Functions: Oxygen transport via HGB & myoglobin. Iron
Good Sources: Beef, liver, red meats, Fish, Tofu, Fortified Cereals. Iron
Sx of Deficiency: Impaired Immune System, ↓work capacity, apathy, lethargy, fatigue, pale nail beds & eye membrane, intolerance to cold, impaired wound healing. Iron
Sx of Toxicity: ↑ risk Infection, Organ damage, Enlarged Liver, Amenorrhea, Impotence, Joint disease. Iron
Functions: Plays key role in fluid and acid-base balance, Transmits nerve impulses & helps control muscle contractions, Helps maintain BP by balancing the volume of water in the body. Sodium
Good Sources: Salt (sodium chloride) is major diet source in table slat, seasoning, spices, precessed foods, hot dogs, cold cuts, beef jerky, canned soup. Saltine crackers, potato chips, pretzels, pickles, and other pickled foods, Sardines and Herrings. Sodium
Sx of Deficiency: Hyponatremia (low Sodium): Lethargy, Headache, Confusion, Apprehension, Seizure, Coma. Sodium
Sx of Toxicity: Hypernatremia: Fever (low grade), Flushed skin, Restless (irritable), ↑ fluid recent I/t ↑ BP. Edema (peripheral and pitting). ↓ Urine output, dry mouth. Sodium
Functions: Plays key role in fluid and acid-base balance. Transmits nerve impulses and helps control muscle contractions in cardiac, skeletal and smooth muscle. Helps make glycogen deposit in liver. Promotes cellular growth. Potassium
Good Sources: Apricots, bananas, oranges, grapefruits, raisins, dried fruit, Dark green leafy vegetables, Raisins, Salt substitutes, All bran cereal, Potatoes, Dried beef (beef jerky), Electrolyte replacement drinks. Potassium
Sx of Deficiency: Hypokalemia: Early signs are fatigue and weakness, leg cramps, weak, irregular pulse. Polyuria, Hyperglycemia, Bradycardia, ECG changes. Potassium
Sx of Toxicity: HyperKalemia: Muscle weakness in LE. Urine- Oliguria or Anuria, Respiratory Distress, Intestinal Cramping & Diarrhea, Arrhythmias or cardiac arrest, ECG changes, Anxiety, Irritability, or heperflexia or areflexia (Flaccid). Potassium
Functions: Involved in maintenance of fluid and acid-base balance. Provides an acid medium in the form of hydrochloric acid for activation of gastric enzymes. Chloride
Good Sources: Major source in table salt (Sodium Chloride), Found in Vegetables. Chloride
Sx of Deficiency: Hypochloremia: May be associated with ↓Cl- in diet. May accompany hyponatremia, as S&S often mirror each other. Chloride
Created by: BOjangles1006