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SpEd Com Disorders

Chp 6 - Communicative Disorders

A speech disorder is... difficulty producing sounds as well as disorders of voice quality (ex. hoarse voice) or fluency of speech (stuttering).
A language disorder is... difficulty receiving, understanding or formulating ideas and information.
A receptive language disorder is... characterized by difficulty receiving or understanding information.
An expressive language disorder is... characterized by difficulty formulating ideas and information.
A cleft palate or lip is... a condition in which a person has a split in the upper part of the oral cavity or the upper lip.
A dialect is... a language variation that a group of individuals uses and that reflects shared regional, social, or cultural/ethnic factors.
Speech is... the oral expression of language.
Language is... a structured, shared, rule-governed, symbolic system for communicating (i.e.; phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics)
Phonology is... the use of sounds to make meaningful syllables and words.
Phonemes are... individual speech sounds (i.e.; syllables, affixes)
Morphology is... the system that governs the structure of words.
A morpheme is... the smallest meaningful unit of speech (i.e.; "duck" cannot be broken into anything smaller)
Syntax is... the rules for putting together a series of words to form sentences.
Semantics is... the meaning of what is expressed.
Pragmatics is... the use of communication in contexts.
Social interaction theories emphasize... that communication skills are learned through social interaction (i.e.; based on child's need for attachment)
Articulation is... a speaker's production of individual or sequenced sounds.
An articulation disorder occurs when... a child cannot correctly produce the various sounds and sound combinations of speech.
Substitutions are... a common form of articulation error in which the child might substitute two sounds. Ex: /d/ for the voiced /th/ => "dose" instead of "those".
Omissions occur when... a child leaves a phoneme out of a word. Ex: "boo" instead of "blue".
Additions occur when... students place a vowel between two consonants. Ex: "tahree" instead of "tree".
Distortions are... modifications of the production of a phoneme in a word. (i.e.; lisps)
Apraxia is... a motor speech disorder that affects the way in which a student plans to produce speech.
Voice disorders include problems with... pitch, duration, intensity, resonance and vocal quality.
Pitch is determined by... the rate of vibration in the vocal folds.
Pitch is affected by... the tension and size of the vocal folds, the health of the larynx and the location of the larynx.
Duration is... the length of time any speech sound requires.
Intensity is... loudness or softness which is based on the perception of the listener.
Intensity is determined by... the air pressure coming from the lungs through the vocal folds.
Resonance is... the perceived quality of someone's voice.
Resonance is determined by... the way in which the tone coming from the vocal folds is modified by the spaces of the throat, mouth and nose.
Hypernasality is... a resonance trait in which air is allowed to pass through the nasal cavity on sounds other than /m/ /n/ and /ng/.
Hyponasality is... sounding as if one has a cold or are holding their nose because air cannot pass through the nose and comes through the mouth instead.
Fluency is... the rate and rhythm of speaking.
A specific language impairment is... not related to any physical or intellectual disability.
Organic disorders are... those cause by an identificale problem in the neuromuscular mechanism of the person.
Functional disorders are... those with no identifiable organic or neurological cause.
A congenital disorder is... a disorder that occurs at or before birth.
An acquired disorder is... a disorder that occurs well after birth.
An oral motor exam is... an examination of the appearance, strength and range of motion of the lips, tongue, palate, teeth and jaw.
Bilingual means... using two languages equally well.
Bidialectal means... using two variations of a language.
The System for Augmenting Language (SAL) is... an instructional strategy which focuses on augmented input of language, originally developed for use with electronic communication devices, but can also be used for students with communication books or boards or sign language.
Created by: 16800374