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cancer pharm

cancer pharmacology for nursing

What type of drug is cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)? alkylating agent
What type of drug is nitrogen mustard? alkylating agent
What type of drug is chlorambucil (Leukeran)? alkylating agent
What is cancer? rapid, uncontrolled cell division
Cancer cells invade surrounding cells
What is a carcinogen? a cancer causing agent
Viruses are associated with what percent of all human cancers? 15%
What are oncogenes? genes that predispose clients to certain cancers
What things can be done to help prevent cancer? eliminate tobacco use,limit alcohol use, reduce animal fats in diet,increase fiber, exercise regularly, keep weight in normal guidelines, exam body monthly for abn skin lesions,highest SPF when in the sun,mammograms as directed, annual DRE/PSA test
What tests should be done at age 50? fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy
What is a neoplasm? tumor
What does the suffix ‘oma’ mean? tumor
What is a tumor? swelling, enlargement, or mass
Characteristics of benign tumors: grow slowly, do not metastasize, rarely require drug treatment, if surgically removed do not normally grow back
What is a benign tumor of glandular tissue called? adenoma
What is a benign tumor of adipose tissue called? lipoma
What are characteristics of malignant tumors? rapid growth, can easily metastasize, resistant to treatment, normally results in death
What are the types of tumors? carcinoma, sarcoma, leukemia, lymphoma, giloma
What are the treatments of cancer? surgery, radiation, chemotherapy
There are greater chances for cure if the cancer is… treated early.
When is surgery performed to remove a tumor? if it is pressing on nerves, airways, or other vital tissues/it is localized
When is surgery on tumors not an option? tumors of blood cells, would not extend client’s lifespan or improve the quality of life
What is radiation therapy? high doses of ionizing radiation aimed directly at the tumor
When is radiation therapy done? may follow surgery, palliation for inoperable cancers to shrink the size of the tumor
Why is radiation used for palliation? relieve pain, difficulty breathing or swallowing
How is chemotherapy transported? through blood
Which chemo drugs are used to treat brain tumors? those that cross the blood-brain barrier
What is the goal of chemo? reach every cancer cell
Which kinds of cancers do we instill the drugs directly into body cavities? bladder cancers, CNS cancers (intrathecally)
Why is chemo given? attempt to cure, prophylaxis, palliation
Chemo is often combined with what to increase chance of cure? surgery/radiation
Why must every cancer cell be destroyed? even just one could reproduce
How many cancer cells does the immune system eliminate? small amount
Which cancer cells are difficult to treat with chemotherapy? physiology of cancer cells are the same as normal cells
Who prepares the chemo agent? the pharmacist, usually under a hood
Who administers chemo? nurses w/extra education
What should be done if chemo infusion extravasates? notify oncologist, leave the IV in place but shut it off, aspirate as much agent as possible, administer antidote, apply heat/cold/steroid cream as ordered, thorough documentation
Why are different classes of antineoplastics given? different classes affect different stages of the cancer’s life cycle, allows lower doses of each agent
Why do we want to give lower doses of antineoplastics? reduce toxicity, slow development of resistance
Why do we give single or multiple doses of antineoplastics over several days? give normal cells a chance to recover, cancer cells may be more sensitive during the time of the next treatment
Which cells are most susceptible to chemo? rapidly growing cells
Why would we push chemo to the maximum possible dosage? greatest tumor cells killed
If we push chemo to the maximum possible dosage (toxicity) and do not see adverse effects, what is happening? not giving enough drug to kill the cancer
What are the adverse effects to the blood with chemo toxicity? anemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia
What are the adverse effects to the GI tract with chemo toxicity? nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia
What drugs are given before chemo? antiemetic meds
What are some adverse effects of chemo? fatigue, opportunistic infections, alopecia, stomatitis
What is stomatitis treated with? ”Magic” mouthwash
What is in Magic Mouthwash? benadryl, Maalox, xylocaine, nystatin
What do antineoplastic agents act on? different parts of the cell cycle
What drugs are antineoplastic agents? alkylating agents, antimetabolites, antitumor antibiotics, plant alkaloids/natural products, hormones and hormone blockers, miscellaneous
Which type of antineoplastic drugs are most widely used? alkylating agents
How do alkylating agents work? form bonds or linkages with DNA, changing the shape of DNA which prevents normal DNA function/kill or slow down replication of tumor cells
When do alkylating agents peak? 1-2 days after administration
What interacts with alkylating agents? echinacea (immune stimulator, interferes with the action)
What are the adverse effects of alkylating agents? bone marrow suppression, damage epithelial cells lining the GI tract
Which drugs are chemically similar to essential building blocks of the cell? antimetabolites
How do antimetabolites work? interfere with nutritional metabolism within the cell
What drug does cancer cells use to construct proteins or DNA? antimetabolites
What do antimetabolites block? DNA synthesis
What type of drug is methotrexate (Folex, Rheumatrex)? antimetabolite
What type of drug is fluorouracil (5-FU)? antimetabolite
What are the actions and uses of methotrexate (Mexate)? many cancers, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis
What is the usual adverse effect of methotrexate (Mexate)? pulmonary toxicity
What is the mechanism of action of methotrexate (Mexate)? interferes with folic acid use in cells
How are antitumor antibiotics given? IV or instilled into cavity
What drugs are antitumor antibiotics similar to? alkylating agents
What type of drug is bleomycin (Blenozane)? antitumor antibiotic
What type of drug is doxorubicin (Dozil)? antitumor antibiotic
How does doxorubicin (Adriamycin) work? prevents cell division, delivered per liposomes
What is a side effect of doxorubicin (Adriamycin)? change urine to red color
What is the effect on the heart of doxorubicin (Adriamycin)? lifetime max dose or it will kill the heart
What is a common ability of plant alkaloids/natural products? arrest cell division (also called mitotic inhibitors)
What kind of drug is vincristine (Oncovin)? plant alkaloid/natural product
How is vincristine (Oncovin) given? IV
Action of vincristine (Oncovin) inhibits mitosis
Adverse effects of vincristine (Oncovin) nervous system toxicity: numbness, tingling, weakness (sometimes a permanent change)
Why are hormones and hormone blockers used? to slow the growth of hormone dependant tumors
What is used to slow breast cancer? testosterone or antiestrogen (tamoxifen citrate (Nolvadex))
What is used to slow the growth of prostate cancer? estrogen
What can estrogen for prostate cancer cause? feminizing effects
When are corticosteroids usually given? for palliation
Adverse effects of hormones used in cancer therapy higher doses than normally present in body, produce few of the typical cytotoxic side effects, can produce significant side effects when given at high doses for prolonged periods
What type of drug is tamoxifen (Nolvadex)? hormone blocker
Actions and uses of tamoxifen (Nolvadex) treat breast cancer that has estrogen receptors, also prevents breast cancer
Adverse effects of tamoxifen (Nolvadex) nausea, vomiting, inc risk of uterine cancer, hot flashes, fluid retention, venous blood clots, abnl vag bldg
How do biologic response modifiers (immunotherapy) work? stimulate body’s immune system
What effect do biologic response modifiers have on other anticancer drugs? minimize immunosuppressive effects
What kind of drug is interferon alfa 2 (Roferon-A, Intron A) biologic response modifier
Actions and uses of interferon alfa 2 (Roferon-A, Intron A) stimulates immune system to remove antigens, suppresses the growth of cancer cells
Adverse effects of interferon alfa 2 (Roferon-A, Intron A) flu-like symptoms (fever, chills, dizzy, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia)
What can toxicity of interferon alfa 2 cause? immunosupression, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity
Created by: angepu