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68wm6 p2 Int Mus Sys

Introduction to the Musculoskeletal System

What is Ankylosis? fixation of a joint, usually in an abnormal position resulting from destruction of articular cartilage or subchondral bone.
What is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints? Articular cartilage
What is Arthrocentesis? puncture of a joint with a needle to withdraw synovial fluid used for diagnostic purposes
What is Arthrodesis? Surgical fusion of a joint so that it is no longer capable of movement
What is Arthroplasty? repair or refashioning of one or both sides, parts, or specific tissue within a joint.
What is a bipolar hip replacement? prosthetic implant used to replace the femoral head and neck in fractures when the vascular supply to the femoral head is or may become compromised
What is a Callus? bony deposits formed between and around the broken ends of a fractured bone during healing
What is a Colles fracture? a fracture of the distal portion of the radius within 1 inch of the wrist
What causes Colles fractures? A strong force pushing the hand into the forearm
What is Compartment Syndrome? pathologic condition caused by progressive development of arterial vessel compression and reduced blood supply to an extremity
What is Fibromyalgia? a musculoskeletal chronic pain syndrome of unknown etiology that causes pain in the muscles, bones or joints
What is Kyphosis? an abnormal condition of the vertebral column, characterized by increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine humpback appearance)
What is Lordosis? an increase in the curve at the lumbar space region that throws the shoulders back (Lordly or kingly appearance)
What is an Open reduction with external fixation? - a surgical procedure allowing fracture alignment under direct visualization while using various internal fixation devices applied to the bone
What is Scoliosis? curvature of the spine usually consisting of two curves; the original abnormal curve and a compensatory curve in the opposite direction (Lateral ā€œSā€)
What is Sequestrum? a fragment of necrotic bone that is partially or entirely detached from the adjacent healthy bone
Sequestrum is a complication of what disease? Osteomyelitis
What is Subluxation? One or more of the bones of the spine move out of position and create pressure/irritate spinal nerves. This pressure/irritation on the nerves causes them to malfunction and interfere with signals nerve signals (caused by dislocation/stretching)
What are Tophi? calculi containing sodium urate deposits that develop in periarticular fibrous tissue
What is a Volkmanns contracture? a permanent contracture with clawhand; flexion of wrist and fingers and atrophy of the forearm that occurs when there is a lack of blood flow (ischemia) to the forearm
What are the functions of the musculoskeletal system? *Support *Protection *Movement *Mineral Storage *Hematopoiesis
How many bones are there in the skeletal system? 206
What are the bone classifications? (Classified on shape) *Long - extremities *Short - hands & feet *Flat - skull and sternum *Irregular - vertebrae
What bones are found in the Axial skeleton? *Skull *Hyoid Bone *Vertebral Column *Thorax
What bones are found in the Appendicular skeleton? *Upper Extremities *Lower Extremities *Shoulder Girdle *Pelvic Girdle (excluding the sacrum)
What are the 3 types of joints? (S.A.D.) *Synarthrosis (No Movement) *Amphiarthrosis (Slight Movement) *Diarthrosis (Free Movement)
What are the 3 functions of muscle? *Motion *Maintenance of posture *Production of heat (85%)
What are the 3 layers of connective tissue that surround muscle fibers? *Epimysium *Perimysium *Endomysium
The epimysium, perimesium and endomesium extend beyond the muscle to form what? A tendon
What are the 9 types of body movement? Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, supination, pronation, dorsiflexion, and plantar flexion
What are the '7 Ps' in neurovascular assessment? *Pulselessness *Paresthesia *Paralysis *Polar Temperature *Pallor *Puffiness (edema) *Pain
Fill in the blanks: Usually ____ artery, ____ veins and ____ nerve penetrate a particular muscle. One, Two, One
What is a motor unit? The union of a muscle cell and a motor neuron
What is the specific neurotransmitter for skeletal muscle tissue? Acetylcholine
What breaks down Acetylcholine once it has transfered the message and allows the muscle cell to relax between impulses? Cholinesterase
What is an X-ray used for in musculoskeletal diagnosis? used to determine presence of fluid, irregularity or change in contour of joint. Also, to determine presence of bone fractures.
What is a Myelogram? the injection of a radiopaque dye into the subarachnoid space at the lumbar spine to detect the presence of herniated disks, or tumors
What is the most common discomfort post procedure for myelogram? (Think of spinal procedures) Headache
If an oil based dye is used in a myelogram, what must the PT do? lie flat for 12 hours
What is a MRI used to diagnose? pathological conditions of the cerebrum and spinal cord (45-60 min)
What is a CT scan? Body sections can be examined from many different angles using a CT scanner; a three dimensional picture of the structure being studied is made
What is a Bone Scan? This test involves the intravenous administration of nuclides 2-3 hours before the test is scheduled. A scanning camera detects the areas concentration of radionuclide uptake which may represent a tumor or other abnormality
What are bone scans especially valuable in detecting? metastatic and inflammatory bone disease (osteomyelitis)
What is an Endoscopic Spinal Microsurgery and who is it effective for? Surgery to spine with less damage to surrounding tissues. Effective for those with herniated disks, spinal stenosis, and spinal deformities such as scoliosis and kyphosis.
Created by: Shanejqb