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Ch 13 Respiratory

Health Assessment for Drake State Technical

What is the primary function of the respiratory system? The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide through respiration.
What are the two phases? Inspiration and expiration.
What is external respiration? The exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood through the alveolar-capillary membrane.
What is internal respiration? The exchange of gases between the systemic capillaries and the tissue at the cellular level.
What is cellular physiological process? The exchange of gases within the cell.
The respiratory system plays a key role in what? The acid-base balance.
What is metabolic acidosis? A metabolic imbalance characterized by excess of respiration increase to blow off excess carbon dioxide, which reduces the amount available to make carbonic acid.
What is the primary muscle of respiration? The diaphragm.
What is metabolic alkalosis? An imbalance characterized by an excess of base, the respiratory system decreases the rate and depth of respiration to conserve carbon dioxide.
Respiratory alkalosis results from? Hyperventilation
Respiratory acidosis results from? Hypoventilation.
What two opposing centers are in the medulla? The inspiratory center and the expiratory center.
What does the inspiratory center do? Stimulates the contractions of the respiratory muscles while at the same time depressing the expiratory center resulting in inhalation.
What does the expiration center do? While the expiration center is stimulated, the inspiration center is depressed resulting in relaxation of the respiratory muscles and exhalation.
What is the most potent chemical that affects respiration? Carbon Dioxide
What are the accessory muscles of the respiratory system? The sternocleidomastoid, anterior serrati, scalene, trapezius, intercostal, and rhomboid muscles.
What do the accessory muscles do? They enhance ventilation by increasing chest expansion and lung size during inspiration.
How do infants breathe and describe their breath sounds. Through their nose. Their respirations are abdominal and breath sounds are louder, harsher, and more bronchial.Their rhythms are often irregular with brief periods of apnea.
Chinese Americans generally have what? Smaller chests.
The higher incidences of respiratory problems among certain ethnic groups relates to what? occupational and environmental factors rather than genetic factors.
African Americans have a higher incidence of what respiratory disease
Appalachians have a higher risk of what Black lung emphysema and TB
The Irish have a higher risk of what respiratory problems related to coal mining
Navajo Indians have an increased risk for respiratory diseases due to what close living quarters.
What purpose does coughing serve? It is a protective, reflexive mechanism that helps maintain a patent airway.
What causes coughing? Insignificant to life-threatening illnesses.
What is Dyspnea? subjective sensation of breathing difficulty or shortness of breath; it may also signal underlying cardiopulmonary or neuromuscular problems or allergic reactions.
What causes chest pains? It may be from cardiac, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, or musculoskeletal origins.
What is edema and from where does it derive? It results from right-side congestive heart failure, a common complication of chronic obstructive lung disease.
What is Hypoxia? it is increased energy expended for breathing and associated cardiac involvement accompany long-standing lung disease and contribute to the development of fatigue.
How many lobes does the right lung have? three
How many lobes does the left lung have Two
what divides the lobes? fissures
What techniques of physical assessment are used to examine the respiratory system? inspection, palpation, percussion, auscultation
Fever can occur in what noninfectious conditions such as pulmonary embolism
eupnea refers to what normal rate, depth, and rhythm of respirations.
tachypnea is what increased rate; can be caused by hypoxia, metabolic acidosis, anxiety, fear, pain, compromised neurological control of breathing, sepsis, fever, or increased metabolism
bradypnea is what decreased rate; results from excessive sedation, hypercapnea, compromised neurological control of breathing, or metabolic alkalosis.
what is shallow respiration decreased depth may be a result of habit, fatigue, metabolic alkalosis, ascites, restrictive lung disease, chest, abdomnial or pleuric pain or neurological disorders
what is increased depth? may be related to neurological disorders, hyperventilation with anxiety, or metabolic acidosis
Created by: hunny_b