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exam 14 phase II M6

failure of normal process of cell generation and development aplasia
disseminated intravascular coagulation acquired hemorrhage syndrome of clotting,cascade overstimulation, and anti-clotting processes
erythrocytosis abn increase in number of RBCs
heterozygous two different genes
homozygous two identical genes inherited from each parent
leukemia excess leukocytes in bone marrow and lymph nodes
lymphangitis inflammation of lymphatic vessels
lymphedema accumulation of lymph fluid in tissue
multiple myeloma malignany neoplastic immunodeficiency disease of bone marrow
myeoproliferative excessive bone marrow production
pancytopenic deficient RBC,WBC, and platelets from reduced or absent bone marrow
pernicious deadly fatal
Reed Sternberg Cell large abn multinucleated cells in lymphatic system-associated with Hodgkins
Granulocytes neutrophils-basophils-eosinophils
neutrophils 70% of WBCs-react to any invasion
basophils key in inflammatory response
eosinophils allergic response
Agranulocytes monocytes-macrophages-lymphocytes
monocytes similar to neutrophils
macrophages mature monocytes that live in tissues
lymphocytes T Cells(killer cells) and B Cells(antibody)
lymph tissues lymph nodes-tonsils-spleen-thymus
tonsils trap bacteria-produces antibodies and lymphocytes
lymph nodes filters lymph fluid-produce lymphocytes
spleen reservoir of blood(500ml)-matures lymphocytes, monocytes, and plasma B cells-destroys old RBCs-produces RBCs before birth
thymus develops immune system in utero and post birth-matures T Cells-atrophies at puberty
CBC includes RBC,WBC,hematocrit,hemoglobin,RBC indices,differential
Red Cell Indices MCV,MCH,MCHC
MCV mean corpuscular volume-volume/size of single RBC
MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin-weight of hemoglobin within RBC
MCHC mean coupuscular hemoglobin concentration-avg percentage of hemoglobin in RBC
differential count of leukocytes-# and % of SBC types
Schilling Test and Megaloblastic Anemia Profile measures Vitamin B12-Normal 8% to 40% of radioactive vitamin B12 excreted within 24 hours
Gastric Analysis evaluates intrinsic factor
lymphangiography radiologic exam to detect metastatic of lymph nodes-check renal function and allergies(iodine)
anemia definition reduction in RBCs, deficiency in hemoglobin and hematocrit, or an increased destruction in RBCs
Manifestations of Anemia anorexia-cardiac dilation-disorientation-fatigue-insomnia-SOB-tachycardia-vertigo
Diagnostic tests for Anemia CBC-iron-reticulocyte-bone marrow biopsy-peripheral blood smears-vitamin B12 levels-Schillings test
Hypovolemic Anemia Anemia due to hemorrhage. S/SX=weakness,stupor,pale,cool,moist. STOP BLEEDING
Pernicious Anemia Autoimmune disorder resulting from destruction of parietal cells and eventual gastric mucosa atrophy.Decreased intrinsic factor=less B12 absorption
Aplastic Anemia failure of normal process of generation and growth. Usually pancytopenic
Iron deficiency Anemia RBCs contain decreased levels of hemoglobin. Pallor-Glossitis-S/Sx similar to that of angina/HF
Sickle Cell Anemia abn crescent RBC contain Hg-S instead of Hg-A. Most common genetic disorder.
Sickle Cell(S/Sx) abd enlargement due to blood pooling in organs-joint/back pain-extremety edema-multisystem failure
Polycythemia Vera myeloproliferative disorder with hyperplasia of bone marrow causing increased circulating erythrocytes,granulocytes, and platelets(overproduction of blood)
Secondary Polycythemia Hypoxia stimulates erythropoietein in kidneys which stimulates erythrocyte production
Clinical Manifest. of Polycythemia Gradual onset-middle aged men-venous distention-epistaxis-petechiae-hepato/splenomegaly
Blood products accepted by Jehovah's Witnesses autologous and volume expanders
Agranulocytosis severe reduction in number of granulocytes(phils)
Agranulocytosis Manifestation fever-chills-headache-fatigue-ulcerations-bronchial pneumonia-UTIs
Leukemia malignant disorder of hematopoietic system in which an excess of leukocytes accumulates in the bone marrow and lymph nodes
Leukemia Manifestations Anemia-thrombocytopenia(petechiae,epistaxis)-leukopenia-enlarged lymph nodes-painless splenomegaly
Multiple Myeloma malignant neoplastic immunodeficiency disease of the bone marrow-Pt susceptible to infection
Types of Leukemia ALL(acute lymphocytic leukemia)-AML(acute mylogenous leukemia)-Chronic lymphocytic leukemia(CLL)
Four Steps of Hemostasis 1)vessel spasm-contraction after damage 2)platelet plug-platelets activated 3)clotting cascade-prothrombin converted to thrombin. Thrombin degrades to fibrin. 4)fibrinolysis-t-PA released. Plasmin dissolves clot
Coagulopathies component necessary to control bleeding is missing--thrombocytopenia,hemophilia,DIC
Thrombocytopenia deficiency in number of platelets--melena-hematuria-petechiae-ecchymosis-epistaxis
Hemophilia x linked hereditary trait. decrease in formation of prothrombin. deformed muscles-immoblie joints(anklosed)-hemarthrosis-pain
DIC Overstimulation of clotting/anticlotting processes. bleeding complaints-dyspnea-bone/joint pain-visual changes-occult blood-petechiae-abd tenderness
Von Willibrand's Disease inherited bleeding disorder characterized by abnormally slow coagulation of blood and spontaneous episodes of GI bleeding,epistaxis, and gingival bleeding caused by mild deficiency of factor VIII
Lymphangitis inflammation of lymphatic vessels of channels caused by infection in extremity. Swollen lymph nodes-fine red streaks-septicemia
Lymphedema accumulation of lymph in soft tissue and edema. Pressure in extremeties due to edema-pain
Malignant Lymphoma neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue. unknown cause. painless lymphadenopathy-fever-weight loss-anemia-pruritis
Lymphomas Treatment Cytoxan-Oncovin-Prednisone-Adriamycin-Bleomycin-Methotrexate-Radiation
Rituxan Immunotherapy to eliminate malignant cells and induce remission-cancer cells injected in mice-mice antibodies harvested and cloned-cloned cells administered to Pt-spares normal cells
Hodgkins malignant disorder characterized by painless progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissue. Anorexia-weight loss-malaise-pruritis-anemia-abd tenderness-facial edema
Hodgkins Stage 1 abn single lymph nodes
Hodgkins Stage 2 two or more lymph nodes on same side of diaphragm
Hodgkins Stage 3 abn lymph nodes on both sides of diaphragm
Hodgkins Stage 4 diffuse and disseminated involvement of more extralymphatic tissues and/or organs
attenuated process of weakening degree of virulence of disease organism
antineoplastics treatment of solid tumors,lymphomas, and leukemias--Classes:Antitumor-cotricosteroids-Enzyme-enzyme inhibitors-antiestrogens
whats faster intrinsic or extrinsic? extrinsic(5 to 10 sec). Intrinsic(5 to 10min)
Desmopressin synthetic ADH. Used in Von Wildebrands to increase VIII release
Hemophilia A factor VIII absent
Hemophilia B(christmas) Factor IX deficient
Test for hamarthrosis hematocrit and PTT prolonged(partial thromboplastin)
DIC massive overstimulation lof clotting cascade. Need to inhibit fibrinolysis and thrombosis. D-Dimer test for fibrinolysis.
platelet plug is example of what kind of feedback? positive feedback
causes of thrombocytopenia leukemia-apastic anemia-tumors-antibody destruction-infection
what organ produces most of the body's coagulation cascade? Liver
platelets <5,000/mm3 spontaneous bleeding
S/SX of Malignant Lymphoma fever-painless lymphadenopathy-weight loss-anemia-pleural effusion
MOPP meds for hodgkins:Mustargen-Oncovin-procarbazine-prednisone
ABVD meds for hodgkins:Adriamycin-Blenoxane-Velbin-DTIC DOME
Cellular Immunity T cells
Humoral Immunity B cells
lymphokine chemical released by T cells that attract macrophages
plasmapheresis removal of plasma that contains disease causing components
proliferation multiplication/reproduction
Immune System Function protect body-homeostasis-detect abn growths
4 R's recognize-respond-remember-regulate
First line of defense physical and chemical barriers
Second line of defense specialized cells-thymus-spleen-bone marrow-blood-lymph
Where do T cells work? inside cell
Where do B cells work? outside cell
Lupus systemic inflammation of any body part-butterfly rash-T cells decreased in # and function-Raynauds-Anemia
CD4+<200cells/mm3 HIV
Most Common S/SX of HIV Fever-Adenopathy-Pharyngitis-Rash-Myalgias
seroconversion detectable hiv antibodies in blood
kaposis sarcoma rare cancer of skin characterized by blue/red raised lesions
Major infections from HIV Pneumocystis Carnii Pneumonia(PCP)-Kaposis
Retrovirus converts RNA to DNA
when can HIV infection show up? antibodies show up in 1-12 weeks-pt can be asymptomatic of show flu like Sx
Created by: zachkaemmerer