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NURS 1120 Exam 2

F&E. cardiovascular, cancer

QuestionAnswer
peripheral cardiovascular disease .
peripheral arterial disease .
venous thromboembolus .
varicose veins .
leg ulcers .
coronary artery disease (CAD) most prevalent type of cardiac disease in adults; includes coronary atherosclerosis, Angina Pectoris, Acute Coronary Syndrome and Myocardial Infarction,
angina chest pain brought on by myocardial ischemia
myocardial infarction death of heart tissue caused by lack of oxygenated blood flow
hypertension .
chronic heart failure inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood to meet the needs of the tissues for oxygen and nutrients, may cause pulmonary or system congestion. Most often, heart failure is progressive, life-long condition that can sometimes be managed.
aneurysm .
how alteration in oxygenation affects patient's need for oxygen .
how alteration in oxygenation affects sleep and rest .
how alteration in oxygenation affects nutrition .
how alteration in oxygenation affects physical safety .
how alteration in oxygenation affects psychological security .
how alteration in oxygenation affects sexuality .
how alteration in oxygenation affects self-esteem .
how medical history affects incidence and severity of oxygenation disorders .
how heredity affects incidence and severity of oxygenation disorders .
how serum lipid levels affect incidence and severity of oxygenation disorders .
how lifestyle affects incidence and severity of oxygenation disorders .
how smoking affects incidence and severity of oxygenation disorders .
how chemical and air pollution affects incidence and severity of oxygenation disorders .
how obesity affects incidence and severity of oxygenation disorders .
how age affects incidence and severity of oxygenation disorders .
how stress affects incidence and severity of oxygenation disorders .
cardiac catheterization .
arteriogram .
stress test .
electrocardiogram .
echocardiogram .
Coumadin anticoagulant
Heparin anticoagulant
Lovenox anticoagulant
Metroprolol beta blocker
Atenolol beta blocker
Coreg beta blocker
Minoxidil vasodilator
Nitroglycerin vasodilator
Hydralazine vasodilator
Isordil vasodilator
Lisinopril ACE inhibitor
Captopril ACE inhibitor
Verapamil calcium channel blocker
Amlodipine calcium channel blocker
Nifedipine calcium channel blocker
Diltiazem calcium channel blocker
Digoxin anti-arrhythmic, cardioglycoside
Amiodarone anti-arrhythmic
Furosemide diuretic
HCTZ diuretic
Bumetadine diuretic
Metalozone diuretic
Aspirin (ASA) anti-platelet
Clopidogrel anti-platelet
Valsartan ARB
Cozaar ARB
Avapro ARB
Atacand ARB
low sodium diet .
low fat diet .
fluid restriction .
community resources available to assist individuals with an acute or chronic cardiac condition .
three layers of the heart endocardium, myocardium, epicardium
four chambers of the heart left and right atria, left and right ventricles
valves mitral (tricuspid) valve, bicuspid valve, aortic semilunar valve, pulmonary semilunar valve
blood flow through the heart superior vena cava -> RA -> mitral valve -> RV -> semilunar valve -> pulmonary arteries -> lungs -> pulmonary veins -> LA -> bicuspid valve -> LV -> semilunar valve -> aorta
cardiac action potential phase 0 - rapid depolarization (Na+ enters), phase 1 - rapid repolarization (Ca+ enters), phase 2 - plateau (K+ leaves toward end), phase 3 - final repolarization (Na+ leaves), phase 4 - resting (K+ returns)
depolarization electrical activation of a cell caused by influx of sodium into the cell while potassium exits the cell
repolarization return of a cell to resting state caused by re-entry of potassium into the cell while sodium exits
refractory period effective refractory period - phase in which cells are incapabale of depolarizing; relative refractory period - phase in which cells require stronger than normal stimulus to depolarize
Cardiac output amount of blood pumped by a ventricle measured in liters per minute; stroke volume x heart rate
stroke volume amount of blood ejected with each heartbeat
preload degree of stretch of cardiac muscle fibers at the end of diastole
contractility ability of cardiac muscle to shorten in response to electrical impulse
afterload resistance to ejection of blood from ventricle
ejection fraction percent of end diastolic volume ejected with each heart beat
structures/systems that control heart rate autonomic nervous system, baroreceptors
structures/systems that control stroke volume preload: Frank-Starling Law, afterload: ................
acute coronary syndrome (ACS) signs and symptoms that indicate unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction
atheroma aka plaque. fibrous cap composed of smooth muscle cells that forms over lipid deposits within arterial vessels and protrudes into the lumen of the vessel, narrowing the lumen and obstructing blood flow
atherosclerosis abnormal accumulation of lipid deposits and fibrous tissue within arterial walls and the lumen
contractility ability of the cardiac muscle to shorten in response to electrical impulse
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) a surgical procedure in which a blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted onto the occluded coronary artery below the occlusion in such a way that blood flow bypasses the blockage
creatine kinase (CK) an enzyme found in human tissues; one of the three types of CK is specific to heart muscle and may be used as an indicator of heart muscle injury
high-density lipoprotein (HDL) a protein-bound lipid that transports cholesterol to the liver for excretion in the bile; composed of a higher proportion of protein to lipid than low-density lipoprotein; exerts a beneficial effect on the arterial wall
ischemia insufficient tissue oxygenation
low-density lipoprotein (LDL) a protein-bound lipid that transports cholesterol to tissues in the body; composed of a lower proportion of protein to lipid than high-density lipoprotein; exerts a harmful effect on the arterial wall
metabolic syndrome a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease
percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) an invasive procedure in which a catheter is placed in a coronary artery and one of several methods is employed to remove or reduce a blockage within the artery
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) a type of percutaneous coronary intervention in which a balloon is inflated within a coronary artery to break an atheroma and open the vessel lumen, improving coronary blood flow
stent woven mesh that provides structural support to a coronary vessel, preventing its closure
sudden cardiac death abrupt cessation of effective heart activity
thrombolytic an agent or process that breaks down blood clots
troponin myocardial protein, measurement is used to assess heart muscle injury
Created by: pinklrt98