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Unit 3 Meds

GI Drugs

Drugs for Peptic Ulcer Disease Tagamet, Pepcid, Zantac, Prilosec, Nexium, Prevacid, Protonix, Carafate, Cyotec
H2 Receptor Antagonist - Blocks secretion of gastric acid Tagamet, Pepcid, Zantac
Tagamet Use cautiously in elderly, may cause confusion. Interferes with coumadin and dilantin
Pepcid Can decrease platelet count (thrombocytopenia)
Proton Pump Inhibitors Prilosec, Nexium, Prevacid, Protonix
Prilosec, Nexium, Prevacid, Protonix Permanently inhibit enzymes that produce gastric acid. Recommended to take for 4-8 weeks, not long term. Increases pH of stomach which increases bacterial growth making an increased risk for pneumonia
Carafate Adheres to opening of ulcer and creates barrier against acid. Does not neutralize acid or decrease secretion. Administer on empty stomach and do not give w/ other meds
Cytotec Used to prevent ulcers from NSAID use. Category X. S/E: Diarrhea, vaginal spotting, stimulates uterine contractions
Zofran Treats nausea, vomiting from radiation, chemo and post surgicals
Scopalamine Used for motion sickness. S/E: (anticholinergic) dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention, constipation
Compazine Increased prolonged QT which can lead to dysrhythmias. Sedative effect. S/E: (anticholinergic) dry mouth, blurred vision, urinary retention, constipation
Inapsine & Phenergan Used with kids. Has a sedative effect
Reglan Works in brain to block vomiting, increases peristalsis (moves bowel)
Imodium Anti-diarrheal. Suppresses bowel motility. Decreases fluids in bowel lumen. If take to much get constipated
Pepto Bismol Anti-diarrheal S/E: Can cause blackened stools and tongue.
Zellnorm Used for irritable bowel syndrome. Do not use if cardiovascular risks. Increased GI motility & secretions. Decreased bloating, constipation and abdominal pain.
Laxatives Citrucel, Colace, Golytely, Senakot, Dulcolax
Citrucel Laxative that produces soft formed stool in 1-3 days. Absorbs water (draws H2O) into bowel. Softens and enlarges fecal mass stimulating peristalsis
Colace Laxative that facilitates penetration of water and electrolytes into bowel (stool softener). Used for post-op patients
Golytely Laxative: Powder form: Used as osmotic laxative to make you go and go. Used pre-op (colonoscopy). Low dose (1x day) = semi-fluid BM in 6-12 hours. High Dose = liquid stool in 2-6 hours
Senakot Laxative that stimulates peristalsis. See stool in 6-12 hours
Dulcolax Laxative that can be given as suppository. BM in 15-60 minutes
Antacids Taken 1-3 hours after meal & at bedtime. Bases/alkaline compounds that neutralize stomach acid
Milk of Magnesia Magnesium based. Can cause diarrhea. Do not give if obstruction or appendicitis. Avoid w/ renal patients
Mylanta, Maalox, Gaviscon Have aluminum and magnesium (antacids)
Magnesium based causes diarrhea
Aluminum based causes constipation
Drugs for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Sulfasalazine, Asacol, Prednisone, Imuran, Remicade
Sulfasalazine First choice drug for IBD, decreases inflammation in bowel. S/E: yellow/orange discoloration of skin/urine, photosensitivity, nausea, fever, rash. Avoid w/ sulfa allergy
Asacol Used for IBD, decreases inflammation. S/E: headache and GI upset
Prednisone Used for IBD. Gets them into remission
Imuran Used for IBD. Gets them into remission, only used for patients who do not respond to other therapy. Not a first choice drug
Remicade Inhibits tubonecrosis factor. Given IV. Give initial infusion again at 2, 6, 8 weeks then q8 weeks. Watch for infection, TB opportunis. Infusion reaction (fever, chills, hives, chest pain, dyspnea). Not always covered by insurance, very expensive
Hepatitis (viral) Alpha-interpheron, Epivir, Hepsera, Ribavirin
Alpha-interpheron Blocks viral entry into cells and synthesis of viral proteins, given subcut. S/E: arthrodial (joint) pain, fatigue, depression, insomnia, & injection site reactions
Epivir Used for Hep B. Given po for 1 year. Inhibits viral DNA synthesis. Use caution in renal patients. reserved for pregnant women or immune compromised
Hepsera Used with Epivir for resistant Hep B. Given po for 1 year. Nephrotoxic
Rebetol Used for Hep C given 2x week. S/E: Anemia, anorexia. Avoid in pregnancy. Treat yourself and your partner
Cirrhosis Vitamin K, Lactulose, Inderal, Aldactone, Questran
Vitamin K Given subcut or IV. Stimulates liver to increase clotting factors
Lactulose Decreases ammonia levels which is secreted in feces. Still give if patient has diarrhea
Inderal Beta blocker. Used for portal HTN and for patients with esophagogastritis to decrease bleeding.
Aldactone Potassium sparing diuretic. Blocks action of aldosterone
Questran Binds to bile salts. Decreases cholesterol and irritation of gastric mucosa. Administered before or w/ meals
Pancreatic Enzymes Pancreatin & Pancrealipase
Pancreatin & Pancrealipase Replacement enzymes for pancreas. Enteric coated to protect medicine. Taken w/ every meal and snack
Bentyl Decreases pain from pancreatitis
Meridia Appetite suppression. used short term <12 weeks. S/E: Increased BP and heart rate, dry mouth and insomnia
Xenical Blocks fat breakdown and absorption in intestines. Undigested fat is excreted in feces. S/E: Leakage of stool, flatulance, diarrhea, and bloating
Pitressin Vasopressor that can be used like epinephrine to vasoconstrict around an ulcer to slow bleeding
Sandostatin an IV med for GI bleed that decreases acid and irritability in the stomach
Actigall Breaks apart gallstones clogging duct
Neomyocin Antibiotic, Decreases ammonia producing bacteria in gut. Give po
Cyclosporine Given to transplant patients to bring down chance of rejecting organ
Created by: kristyd02