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QuestionAnswer
What actions should parents be advised to take to protect a child with asthma and specific food allergies? Greatest risk of death from anaphylaxis (epipen, avoid exposure to allergen - read food labels)
When should supplemental foods be introduced to the diet of an infant? American Academy of Pediatrics recommends introducing complementary foods at 4-6 months.
What advice should be provided to parents regarding avoiding foods likely to cause allergies for infant less than 1 year of age? Recommendations for infants at risk due to a family history of allergy are to delay feeding of cow milk until 1 year of age; Strawberries, wheat, eggs until 2 years; peanuts, nuts, fish, and shellfish until 3 years.
A child born in the fall would be most likely to be deficient in which nutrient? Vitamin D, calcium
What disorders can allowing an infant to go to sleep with a bottle cause? Early childhood caries, otitis media, endocarditis
What can parents do to cope with the dietary habits of a 2-year-old? offer a variety of nutritious foods several times daily (3 meals, 2 snacks) & let toddler make choices from foods offered. Offer foods only at meal & snack times & have the child eat in a high chair. Limit milk intake to 1 quart daily & juice to 6 oz/day
Kwashiorkor ). Protein deficiency manifests with edema leading to large abdomens & rounded faces; scant depigmented hair; skin changes & decreased serum proteins. Hepatomegaly, kidney failure (if severe)
marasmus lack of energy-producing calories;results in emaciation, decreased energy levels, and retarded development
Anorexia nervosa extreme weight loss accompanied by preoccupation with weight & food, excessive compulsive exercising, peculiar patterns of eating & handling the food, and distorted body image
Bulimia nervosa Erosion of tooth enamel, increased dental caries & gum recession, Back of a hand can have calluses from inducing vomiting. Esophageal tears & esophagitis may also occur
What recommendations regarding feeding newborns and young infants should be provided to young mothers (in accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics? introducing complementary foods at 4-6 months. Breast milk can be the only food for the first 6 months, through 12 months of age.Avoid hot dogs, hard vegetables, candy, whole grapes & chunks of peanut butter.
Review the care of the child with celiac disease. What foods are allowed for this child’s diet? Management of disease is total exclusion of gluten from the diet. Barley, rye, and wheat are completely eliminated; oats may be tolerated. Substitutions using potato, rice, soy, quinoa, buckwheat, or bean flours & foods are provided.
What is the best advice for young parents to prevent their pre-school aged child from developing dental caries ? Limit fruit juices to 8-12 ounces daily, avoid bottles. Children can begin to brush their own teeth with parental supervision & help to reach all tooth surfaces. Fluoride may need to be supplemented
Review the Nursing recommendations for the child who receives enteral feedings. Enteral feeding is the closest to natural feeding methods, The child must be able to absorb nutrients, and Enteral feeding has a high success rate
Review the recommendations to improve the absorption of iron. Enhanced absorption if taken together with vitamin C.
Review food safety recommendations for a young mother. wash hands & surfaces often; avoid cross-contamination; cook to proper temperatures; refrigerate promptly
What is the most common preventable infectious disease in the U.S.? Dental caries; can lead to more serious infections like endocarditis
Review the nutritional recommendations to be provided for a child with cystic fibrosis. Well balanced diet with 110-200% of RDA for calories. Digestive problems can be eased with pancreatic enzymes & dietary modification. Fats & salt necessary in diet.
List the recommendations to be made to the parent of an infant who must receive enteral feedings. Hold & rock the infant during feedings; give pacifier to infant to meet developmental needs for oral stimulation; burp the infant throughout the feeding; place the infant in right side-lying position for ½-1 hour after feedings if not contraindicated
Review the recommended weight gains for children under 1 year of age. 5-7 ounces/week for first 6 months; 3-5 ounces/week (6-12 months).
Be able to discuss interpreting the various percentiles for weights of children versus age. A measurement below 10th percentile, especially for BMI, may indicate undernutrition, whereas one over 90th percentile may indicate overnutrition
Discuss the causes of dental caries. when allowed to nurse or drink from a bottle for a long periods, especially when sleeping. should not be placed in bed with bottle or allowed to carry a bottle of milk or juice around during the day. Limit consumption of juices to 4-6 oz/day.Bulimia
Review the normal progression of solid foods to be introduced into the diet of an infant. rice cereal (4-6 months); vegetables (6-8 months); meats (8-10 months); introduce 1 food at time waiting 3-5 days for another; avoid honey until 1 yo